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Bill


15 dicționare găsite pentru bill
Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Bill \Bill\, n. [OE. bile, bille, AS. bile beak of a bird,
     proboscis; cf. Ir. & Gael. bil, bile, mouth, lip, bird's
     bill. Cf. Bill a weapon.]
     A beak, as of a bird, or sometimes of a turtle or other
     animal. --Milton.
     [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Bill \Bill\, v. t.
     To work upon ( as to dig, hoe, hack, or chop anything) with a
     bill.
     [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Bill \Bill\, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Billed; p. pr. & vb. n.
     Billing.]
     1. To strike; to peck. [Obs.]
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. To join bills, as doves; to caress in fondness. "As
        pigeons bill." --Shak.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     To bill and coo, to interchange caresses; -- said of doves;
        also of demonstrative lovers. --Thackeray.
        [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Bill \Bill\, n. [OE. bill, bille, fr. LL. billa (or OF. bille),
     for L. bulla anything rounded, LL., seal, stamp, letter,
     edict, roll; cf. F. bille a ball, prob. fr. Ger.; cf. MHG.
     bickel, D. bikkel, dice. Cf. Bull papal edict, Billet a
     paper.]
     [1913 Webster]
     1. (Law) A declaration made in writing, stating some wrong
        the complainant has suffered from the defendant, or a
        fault committed by some person against a law.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. A writing binding the signer or signers to pay a certain
        sum at a future day or on demand, with or without
        interest, as may be stated in the document. [Eng.]
        [1913 Webster]
  
     Note: In the United States, it is usually called a note, a
           note of hand, or a promissory note.
           [1913 Webster]
  
     3. A form or draft of a law, presented to a legislature for
        enactment; a proposed or projected law.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     4. A paper, written or printed, and posted up or given away,
        to advertise something, as a lecture, a play, or the sale
        of goods; a placard; a poster; a handbill.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              She put up the bill in her parlor window. --Dickens.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     5. An account of goods sold, services rendered, or work done,
        with the price or charge; a statement of a creditor's
        claim, in gross or by items; as, a grocer's bill.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     6. Any paper, containing a statement of particulars; as, a
        bill of charges or expenditures; a weekly bill of
        mortality; a bill of fare, etc.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     Bill of adventure. See under Adventure.
  
     Bill of costs, a statement of the items which form the
        total amount of the costs of a party to a suit or action.
        
  
     Bill of credit.
        (a) Within the constitution of the United States, a paper
            issued by a State, on the mere faith and credit of the
            State, and designed to circulate as money. No State
            shall "emit bills of credit." --U. S. Const. --Peters.
            --Wharton. --Bouvier
        (b) Among merchants, a letter sent by an agent or other
            person to a merchant, desiring him to give credit to
            the bearer for goods or money.
  
     Bill of divorce, in the Jewish law, a writing given by the
        husband to the wife, by which the marriage relation was
        dissolved. --Jer. iii. 8.
  
     Bill of entry, a written account of goods entered at the
        customhouse, whether imported or intended for exportation.
        
  
     Bill of exceptions. See under Exception.
  
     Bill of exchange (Com.), a written order or request from
        one person or house to another, desiring the latter to pay
        to some person designated a certain sum of money therein
        generally is, and, to be negotiable, must be, made payable
        to order or to bearer. So also the order generally
        expresses a specified time of payment, and that it is
        drawn for value. The person who draws the bill is called
        the drawer, the person on whom it is drawn is, before
        acceptance, called the drawee, -- after acceptance, the
        acceptor; the person to whom the money is directed to be
        paid is called the payee. The person making the order may
        himself be the payee. The bill itself is frequently called
        a draft. See Exchange. --Chitty.
  
     Bill of fare, a written or printed enumeration of the
        dishes served at a public table, or of the dishes (with
        prices annexed) which may be ordered at a restaurant, etc.
        
  
     Bill of health, a certificate from the proper authorities
        as to the state of health of a ship's company at the time
        of her leaving port.
  
     Bill of indictment, a written accusation lawfully presented
        to a grand jury. If the jury consider the evidence
        sufficient to support the accusation, they indorse it "A
        true bill," otherwise they write upon it "Not a true
        bill," or "Not found," or "Ignoramus", or "Ignored."
  
     Bill of lading, a written account of goods shipped by any
        person, signed by the agent of the owner of the vessel, or
        by its master, acknowledging the receipt of the goods, and
        promising to deliver them safe at the place directed,
        dangers of the sea excepted. It is usual for the master to
        sign two, three, or four copies of the bill; one of which
        he keeps in possession, one is kept by the shipper, and
        one is sent to the consignee of the goods.
  
     Bill of mortality, an official statement of the number of
        deaths in a place or district within a given time; also, a
        district required to be covered by such statement; as, a
        place within the bills of mortality of London.
  
     Bill of pains and penalties, a special act of a legislature
        which inflicts a punishment less than death upon persons
        supposed to be guilty of treason or felony, without any
        conviction in the ordinary course of judicial proceedings.
        --Bouvier. --Wharton.
  
     Bill of parcels, an account given by the seller to the
        buyer of the several articles purchased, with the price of
        each.
  
     Bill of particulars (Law), a detailed statement of the
        items of a plaintiff's demand in an action, or of the
        defendant's set-off.
  
     Bill of rights, a summary of rights and privileges claimed
        by a people. Such was the declaration presented by the
        Lords and Commons of England to the Prince and Princess of
        Orange in 1688, and enacted in Parliament after they
        became king and queen. In America, a bill or declaration
        of rights is prefixed to most of the constitutions of the
        several States.
  
     Bill of sale, a formal instrument for the conveyance or
        transfer of goods and chattels.
  
     Bill of sight, a form of entry at the customhouse, by which
        goods, respecting which the importer is not possessed of
        full information, may be provisionally landed for
        examination.
  
     Bill of store, a license granted at the customhouse to
        merchants, to carry such stores and provisions as are
        necessary for a voyage, custom free. --Wharton.
  
     Bills payable (pl.), the outstanding unpaid notes or
        acceptances made and issued by an individual or firm.
  
     Bills receivable (pl.), the unpaid promissory notes or
        acceptances held by an individual or firm. --McElrath.
  
     A true bill, a bill of indictment sanctioned by a grand
        jury.
        [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Bill \Bill\, n.
     The bell, or boom, of the bittern
     [1913 Webster]
  
           The bittern's hollow bill was heard.     --Wordsworth.
     [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Bill \Bill\, n. [OE. bil, AS. bill, bil; akin to OS. bil sword,
     OHG. bill pickax, G. bille. Cf. Bill bea?.]
     1. A cutting instrument, with hook-shaped point, and fitted
        with a handle; -- used in pruning, etc.; a billhook. When
        short, called a hand bill, when long, a hedge bill.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. A weapon of infantry, in the 14th and 15th centuries. A
        common form of bill consisted of a broad, heavy,
        double-edged, hook-shaped blade, having a short pike at
        the back and another at the top, and attached to the end
        of a long staff.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              France had no infantry that dared to face the
              English bows end bills.               --Macaulay.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     3. One who wields a bill; a billman. --Strype.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     4. A pickax, or mattock. [Obs.]
        [1913 Webster]
  
     5. (Naut.) The extremity of the arm of an anchor; the point
        of or beyond the fluke.
        [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Bill \Bill\, v. t.
     1. To advertise by a bill or public notice.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. To charge or enter in a bill; as, to bill goods.
        [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul WordNet (r) 2.0 :

  bill
       n 1: a statute in draft before it becomes law; "they held a
            public hearing on the bill" [syn: measure]
       2: an itemized statement of money owed for goods shipped or
          services rendered; "he paid his bill and left"; "send me
          an account of what I owe" [syn: account, invoice]
       3: a piece of paper money (especially one issued by a central
          bank); "he peeled off five one-thousand-zloty notes" [syn:
           note, government note, bank bill, banker's bill,
          bank note, banknote, Federal Reserve note, greenback]
       4: the entertainment offered at a public presentation
       5: a list of particulars (as a playbill or bill of fare)
       6: an advertisement (usually printed on a page or in a leaflet)
          intended for wide distribution; "he mailed the circular to
          all subscribers" [syn: circular, handbill, broadside,
           broadsheet, flier, flyer, throwaway]
       7: horny projecting mouth of a bird [syn: beak, neb, nib,
           pecker]
       8: a sign posted in a public place as an advertisement; "a
          poster advertised the coming attractions" [syn: poster,
          posting, placard, notice, card]
       9: a long-handled saw with a curved blade; "he used a bill to
          prune branches off of the tree" [syn: billhook]
       10: a brim that projects to the front to shade the eyes; "he
           pulled down the bill of his cap and trudged ahead" [syn:
           peak, eyeshade, visor, vizor]
       v 1: demand payment; "Will I get charged for this service?"; "We
            were billed for 4 nights in the hotel, although we
            stayed only 3 nights" [syn: charge]
       2: advertise especially by posters or placards; "He was billed
          as the greatest tenor since Caruso"
       3: publicize or announce by placards [syn: placard]

Din dicționarul Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0 :

  312 Moby Thesaurus words for "bill":
     CD, Federal Reserve note, IOU, MO, acceptance, acceptance bill,
     account, accounts payable, accounts receivable, act, advertise,
     affiche, affidavit, agenda, allegation, allowance, amount due,
     antlia, assessment, assignat, bad debts, ballyhoo, bank acceptance,
     bank check, bank note, banknote, bark, batting order, be a gas,
     be a hit, beak, beezer, benefit, bill of account,
     bill of complaint, bill of draft, bill of exchange, bill of fare,
     bill of lading, bills, blackmail, blank check, blood money,
     blueprint, bomb, bone, book, books, boost, borrowing, breakwater,
     buck, budget, bugle, build up, bulletin, bylaw, calendar, call,
     call in, canon, cape, card, carte, carte du jour, certificate,
     certificate of deposit, certified check, charge, charges, check,
     checkbook, cheque, chersonese, chits, circularize, claim, clause,
     commercial paper, companion bills amendment, complaint, conk,
     coral reef, cry up, damage, debenture, debt, debut, declaration,
     decree, delta, demand bill, demand draft, demand payment,
     deposition, dictate, dictation, docket, dollar bill, draft,
     dragnet clause, dramatize, due, due bill, dues, dun, edict,
     emolument, enacting clause, enactment, entertainment,
     escalator clause, establish, exchequer bill, exhibit, exhibition,
     fail, farewell performance, feature, fee, fiat money,
     financial commitment, fish, flesh show, floating debt, flop,
     folding money, footing, foreland, form, formality, formula,
     formulary, fractional note, frogskin, funded debt, give a write-up,
     give publicity, government note, handbill, head, headland,
     headline, hold-up bill, hook, hush money, indebtedness, indebtment,
     initiation fee, institution, invoice, iron man, itemized bill,
     jaws, joker, jus, law, ledger, legal-tender note, legislation,
     letter of credit, lex, liability, libel, line up, lineup,
     list of agenda, make a hit, manifest, maturity, measure,
     melodramatize, menu, mileage, money order, motion, mount, muffle,
     mull, muzzle, nares, narratio, national bank note, national debt,
     naze, neb, negotiable instrument, negotiable note, ness, nib,
     nolle prosequi, nonsuit, nose, nostrils, note, note of hand,
     nozzle, obligation, olfactory organ, omnibus bill, open,
     open a show, ordinance, ordonnance, outstanding debt, paper,
     paper money, peak, pecker, peninsula, performance, placard,
     playbill, pledge, plug, point, post, post bills, post up,
     postal order, premiere, prescript, prescription, present,
     presentation, presentment, press-agent, preview,
     privileged question, proboscis, produce, production, program,
     program of operation, programma, promissory note, promontory,
     promote, prospectus, protocol, proviso, public debt, publicize,
     puff, put on, question, reckoning, reef, regulation, retainer,
     retaining fee, rhinarium, rider, roster, rostrum, rubric, rule,
     ruling, sandspit, saving clause, scenarize, schedule, schnozzle,
     score, scot, scrip, sell, send a statement, set the stage,
     shinplaster, show, sight bill, sight draft, skin, slate, smacker,
     smeller, snoot, snout, spiel, spit, spur, stage,
     stage presentation, standing order, star, statement,
     statement of facts, statute, stipend, succeed, swan song, tab,
     tabulation, tally, theatrical performance, theatricalize,
     time bill, time draft, tongue, trade acceptance, treasury bill,
     treasury note, tribute, trunk, try out, tryout, uncollectibles,
     unfulfilled pledge, voucher, warrant, write up  
     
Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  BILL, chancery practice. A complaint in writing addressed to the chancellor, 
  containing the names of the parties to the suit, both complainant and 
  defendant, a statement of the facts on which the complainant relies, and the 
  allegations which he makes, with an averment that the acts complained of are 
  contrary to equity , and a prayer for relief and proper process. Its office 
  in a chancery suit, is the same as a declaration in an action at law, a 
  libel in a court of admiralty or an allegation in, the spiritual courts. 
       2. A bill usually consists of nine parts. 1. The address, which must be 
  to the chancellor, court or judge acting as such. 2. The second part 
  consists of the names of the plaintiffs and their descriptions; but the 
  description of the parties in this part of the bill does not, it seems, 
  constitute a sufficient averment, so as to put that fact in issue. 2. Ves. & 
  Bea. 327. 3. The third part is called the premises or stating part of the 
  bill, and contains the plaintiff's case. 4. In the fourth place is a general 
  charge of confederacy. 5. The fifth part consists of allegations of the 
  defendant's pretences, and charges in evidence of them. 6. The sixth part 
  contains the clause of jurisdiction and in averment that the acts complained 
  of are contrary to equity. 7. The seventh part consists of a prayer that the 
  parties answer the premises, which is usually termed the interrogatory part. 
  8. The prayer for relief sought forms the eighth part. And, 9. The ninth 
  part is a prayer for process. 2 Mad. Ch. 166; Blake's Ch. P. 35; 1 Mitf. Pl. 
  41. The facts contained in the bill, as far as known to the complainant, 
  must, in some cases, be sworn to be true; and such as are not known to him, 
  he must swear he believes to be true; and it must be signed by counsel; 2 
  Madd. Ch. Pr. 167; Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 26 to 47; and for cases requiring an 
  affidavit, see, 3 Brow. Chan. Cas. 12, 24, 463; Bunb. 35; 2 Brow. 11 1 Fow. 
  Proc. 256 Mitf. Pl. 51; 2 P. Wms. 451; 3 Id. 77; 1 Atk. 450; 3 Id. 17, 132; 
  3 Atk. 132 Preced. in Ch. 332 Barton's Equity, 48 n. 1, 53 n. 1, 56 n. 1 2 
  Brow. Ch. Cas. 281, 319; 4 Id. 480 
       3. Bills may be divided into three classes, namely: 1. Original bills. 
  2. Bills not original. 3. Bills in the nature of original bills. 
       4. - 1. An original bill is one which prays the decree of the court, 
  touching some right claimed by the person exhibiting the bill, in opposition 
  to some right claimed by the person against whom the bill is exhibited. 
  Hinde, 19; Coop. Eq. Pl. 43. Original bills always relate to some matter not 
  before litigated in the court by the same persons, and standing in the same 
  interests. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 34; Story, Eq. Pl., Sec. 16. They may be 
  divided into those which pray relief, and those which do not pray relief. 
       5. - 1st. Original bills praying relief are of three kinds. First. 
  Bills Praying the decree or order of the court, touching some right claimed 
  by the party exhibiting the bill, in opposition to some right, real or 
  supposed, claimed by the party against whom the bill is exhibited, or 
  touching some wrong done in violation of the plaintiff's right. Mitf. Eq. 
  Pl. 32. 
       6. - Secondly. A bill of interpleader, is one in which the person 
  exhibiting it claims no right in opposition to the rights claimed by the 
  person against whom the bill is exhibited, but prays the decree of the court 
  touching the rights of those persons, for the safety of the person 
  exhibiting the bill. Hinde, 20; Coop. Eq. Pl. 43; Mitf. Pl. 32. The 
  Practical Register defines it to be a bill exhibited by a third person, who, 
  not knowing to whom he ought of right to render a debt or duty, or pay his 
  rent, fears he may be hurt by some of the claimants, and therefore prays be 
  may interplead, so that the court may judge to whom the thing belongs, and 
  he be thereby safe on the payment. Pr. Reg. 78; Harr. Ch. Pr. 45; Edw. Inj. 
  393; 2 Paige, 199 Id. 570; 6 John. Ch. R. 445. 
       7. The interpleader has been compared to the intervention (q. v.) of 
  the civil law. Gilb. For. Rom. 47. But there is a striking difference 
  between them. The tertius in our interpleader in equity, professes to have 
  no interest in the subject, and calls upon the parties who allege they have, 
  to come forward and discuss their claims: the tertius of the civil law, on 
  the other hand, asserts a right himself in the 'Subject, which two persons 
  are at the time actually contesting, and insists upon his right to join in 
  the discussion. A bill of interpleader may be filed, though the party has 
  not been sued at law, or has been sued by one only of the conflicting 
  claimants, or though the claim of one of the defendants is actionable at 
  law, and the other in equity. 6 Johns. Chan. R. 445. The requisites of a 
  bill of this kind are, 1. It must admit the want of interest in the 
  plaintiff in the subject matter of dispute. 2. The plaintiff must annex an 
  affidavit that there is no collusion between him and either of the parties. 
  3. The bill must contain an offer to bring the money into court, when there 
  is any due; the want of which is a ground of demurrer, unless the money has 
  actually been paid into court. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 49; Coop. Eq. Pl. 49; Barton, 
  Suit in Eq. 47, note 1. 4. The plaintiff should state his own rights, and 
  thereby negative any interest in the thing in controversy; and also should 
  state the several claims of the opposite parties; a neglect on this subject 
  is good cause of demurrer. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 142; 2 Story on Eq. Sec. 
  821; Story, Eq. Pl. 292. 5. The bill should also show that there are persons 
  in esse capable of interpleading, and setting up opposite claims. Coop. Eq. 
  Pl. 46; 1 Mont. Eq. Pl. 234; Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 295; Story on Eq. Sec. 821; 
  1 Ves. 248. 6. The bill should pray that the defendants set forth their 
  several titles, and interplead, settle, and adjust their demands between 
  themselves. The bill also generally prays an injunction to restrain the 
  proceedings of the claimants, or either of them, at law; and, in this case, 
  the bill should offer to bring the money into court and the court will not 
  in general act upon this part of the prayer, unless the money be actually 
  brought into court. 4 Paige's R. 384 6 John. Ch. R. 445. 
       8. Thirdly. A bill of certiorari, is one praying the writ of certiorari 
  to remove a cause from an inferior court of equity. Coop. El q. 44. The 
  requisites of this bill are that it state, 1st. the proceedings in the 
  inferior court; 2d. the incompetency of such court, by suggesting that the 
  cause is out of its jurisdiction; or that the witnesses live out of its 
  jurisdiction; or are not able, by age or infirmity, or the distance of the 
  place, to follow the suit there or that, for some other cause, justice is 
  not likely to be done-, 3d. the bill must pray a writ of certiorari, to 
  certify and remove the record and the cause to the superior court. Wyatt, 
  Pr. Reg. 82; Harr. Ch. Pr. 49; Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 298. This bill is seldom 
  used in the United States. 
       9. - 2d. Original bills not praying relief are of two kinds. First,. 
  Bills to secure evidence, which are bills to perpetuate the testimony of 
  witnesses or bills to examine witnesses de bene esse. These will be 
  separately considered. 
      10. - 1. A bill to perpetuate the testimony of witnesses, is one which 
  prays leave to examine them, and states that the witnesses are old, infirm, 
  or sick, or going beyond the jurisdiction of the court, whereby the party is 
  in danger of losing the benefit of their testimony. Hinde, 20. It does not 
  pray for relief. Coop. Eq. Pl. 44. 
      11. In order to maintain such a bill, it is requisite to state on its 
  face all the material facts to support the jurisdiction. It must state, 1. 
  the subject-matter touching which the plaintiff is desirous of giving 
  evidence. Rep. Temp. Finch, 391; 4 Madd. R. 8, 10. 2. It must show that the 
  plaintiff has some interest in the subject-matter, which may be endangered 
  if the testimony in support of it be lost; and a mere expectancy, however 
  strong, is not sufficient. 6 Ves. 260 1 Vern. 105; 15 Ves. 136; Mitf. Eq. 
  Pl. by Jeremy, 51 Coop. Eq. Pl., 52. 3. It must state that the defendant 
  has, or pretends to have, or that he claims an interest to contest the title 
  of the plaintiff in the subject-matter of the proposed testimony. Coop. Pl. 
  56; Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 302. 4. It must exhibit some ground of necessity for 
  perpetuating the evidence. Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 303 Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 
  52, 148 and note y; Coop. Eq. Pl. 53. 5. The right of which the bill is 
  brought to perpetuate the evidence or testimony, should be described with 
  reasonable certainty in the bill, so as to point the proper interrogations 
  on both sides to the true merits of the controversy. 1 Vern. 312; Coop. Eq. 
  Pl. 56. 6. It should pray leave to examine the witnesses touching the matter 
  stated, to the end that their testimony maybe preserved and perpetuated. 
  Mitf. Pl 
      52. A bill to perpetuate testimony differs from a bill to take testimony 
  de bene esse, in this, that the latter is sustainable only when there is a 
  suit already depending, while the former can be maintained only when no 
  present suit can be brought at law by the party seeking the aid of a court 
  to try his right. Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 307. The canonists had a similar rule. 
  According to the canon law, witnesses could be examined before any action 
  was commenced, for fear that their evidence might be lost. x, cap. 5 
  Boehmer, n. 5 8 Toull. n. 23. 
      12. - 2. Bill to take testimony de bene esse. This bill, the name of 
  which is sufficiently descriptive of its object, is frequently confounded 
  with a bill to perpetuate testimony; but although it bears a close analogy 
  to it, ,it is very different. Bills to perpetuate testimony can be 
  maintained only, when no present suit can be maintained at law by the party 
  seeking the aid of the court to try his right; whereas bills to take 
  testimony de bene esse, are sustainable only in aid of a suit already 
  depending. 1 Sim. & Stu. 83. The latter may be brought by a person who is in 
  possession, or out of possession; and whether he be plaintiff or defendant 
  in the action at law. Story, Eq Pl. Sec. 307 and 303, note; Story on Eq. 
  1813, note 3. In many respects the rules which regulate the framing of bills 
  to perpetuate testimony, are applicable to bills to take testimony ae bene 
  esse. 
      13. - Secondly. A bill of discovery, emphatically so called, is one 
  which prays for the discovery of facts resting within the knowledge of the 
  person against whom the bill is exhibited, or of deeds, writings, or other 
  things in his custody or power. Hinde, 20; Blake's Ch. Pr. 37. Every bill, 
  except the bill of certiorari, may in truth, be considered a bill of 
  discovery, for every bill seeks a disclosure of circumstances relative to 
  the plaintiff's case; but that usually and emphatically distinguished by 
  this appellation is a bill for the discovery of facts, resting in the 
  knowledge of the defendant, or of deeds or writings, or other things in his 
  custody or power, and seeking no relief in consequence of the discovery. 
      14. This bill is commonly used in aid of the jurisdiction of some other 
  court as to enable the plaintiff to prosecute or defend an action at law. 
  Mitf. Pl. 52. "The plaintiff, in this species of bill, must be entitled to 
  the discovery he seeks, and shall only have a discovery of what is necessary 
  for his own title, as of deeds he claims under, and not to pry into that of 
  the defendant. 2 Ves. 445. See Blake's Ch. Pr. 45 Mitf. Pl. 52 Coop. Eq. Pl. 
  58 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 196 Hare on Disc. passim Wagr. on Disc. passim. 
      15. The action ad exhibendum, in the Roman law, was not unlike a bill of 
  discovery. Its object was to force the party against whom it was instituted, 
  to exhibit a thing or a title in his power. It was always preparatory to 
  another, which was always a real action in the sense of the word in the 
  Roman law. See Action ad exhibendum; Merlin, Questions de Droit, tome i. 84. 
      16. - II . Bills not original. These are either in addition to, or a 
  continuance of an original bill, or both. Mitf. c. 1, s . 2; Story, Eq. Pl. 
  Sec. 388; .4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4100. 
      17. - 1st. Of the first class are, 1. A supplemental bill. This bill is 
  occasioned by some defect in a suit already instituted, whereby the parties 
  cannot obtain complete justice, to which otherwise the case by their bill 
  would have entitled them. It is used for the purpose of supplying some 
  irregularity discovered in the formation of the original bill, or some of 
  the proceedings there upon; or some defect in a suit, arising from events 
  happening since the points in the original were at issue, which give an 
  interest to20persons not parties to the suit. Blake's Ch. Pr. 50. See 3 
  Johns. Ch. R. 423. 
      18. It is proper to consider more minutely 1. in what cases such a bill 
  may be filed; 2. its particular requisites. 
      19.- 1. A supplemental bill may be filed, 1st. whenever the imperfection 
  in the original bill arises from the omission of some material fact, which 
  existed before the filing of the bill, but the time has passed in which it 
  can be introduced into the bill by amendment,, Mitf. Eq. Pl. 55, 61, 325 but 
  leave of court must be obtained, before a bill which seeks to change the 
  original structure of the bill, and to introduce a new and different case, 
  can be filed. 2d. When a party necessary to the proceedings has been 
  omitted, and cannot be admitted by an amendment. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 61 6 Madd. R. 
  369; 4 John. Ch. R. 605. 3d. When, after the court has decided upon the suit 
  as framed, it appears necessary to bring some other matter before the court 
  to obtain the full effect of the decision; or before a decision has been 
  obtained, but after the parties are at issue upon the points in the original 
  bill, and witnesses have been examined, (in which case, an amendment is not 
  in general permitted,) some other point appears necessary to be made, or 
  some additional discovery is found requisite. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 55; 
  Coop Eq. Pl. 73; 3 Atk. R. 110; 12 Paige, R. 200. 4th. When new events or 
  new matters have occurred since the filing of the bill; Coop. Eq. Pl. 74; 
  these events or matters, however, are confined to such as refer to and 
  support the rights and interests already mentioned in the bill. Story, Eq. 
  Pl. Sec. 336. 
      20. - 2. The supplemental bill must state the original bill, and the 
  proceedings thereon and when it is occasioned by an event which has occurred 
  subsequently to the original bill, it must state that event, and the 
  consequent alteration with regard to the parties. In general, the 
  supplemental bill must pray that all defendants appear and answer the 
  charges it contains. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 75 Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 343. 
      21. - 2. A bill of revivor, which is a continuance of the original bill, 
  when by death some party to it has become incapable of prosecuting or 
  defending a suit, or a female plaintiff has by marriage incapacitated 
  herself from suing alone. Mitf. Pl. 33, 70; 2 Madd. Ch. Pr. 526. See 3 
  Johns. Ch. R. 60: Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 354, et. seq. 
      22. - 3. A bill of revivor and supplement. This is a compound of a 
  supple-mental bill and bill of revivor, and not only continues the suit, 
  which has abated by the death of the plaintiff, or the like, but supplies 
  any defects in the original bill, arising from subsequent events, so as to 
  entitle the party to relief on the whole merits of his case. 5 Johns. Ch R. 
  334; Mitf. Pl. 32, 74. 
      23. - 2d. Among the second class may be placed, 1. A cross bill. This is 
  one which is brought by a defendant in a suit against the plaintiff, 
  respecting the matter in question in that bill. Coop. Eq. Pl. 85 Mitf. Pl. 
  75. 
      24. A bill of this kind is usually brought to obtain, either a necessary 
  discovery, or full relief to all the parties. It frequently happens, and 
  particularly if any questions arises between two defendants to a bill, that 
  the court cannot make a complete decree without a cross bill, or cross bills 
  to bring every matter in dispute completely before the court, litigated by 
  the proper parties, and upon proper proofs. In this case it becomes 
  necessary for some one of the defendants to the original bill to file a bill 
  against the plaintiff and other defendants in that bill, or some of them, 
  and bring the litigated point properly before the court. 
      25. A cross bill should state the original bill, and the proceedings 
  thereon, and the rights of the party exhibiting the bill which are necessary 
  to be made the subject of a cross litigation, or the grounds on which he 
  resists the claims of the plaintiff in the original bill, if that is the 
  object of the new bill. 
      26. A cross bill may be filed to answer the purpose of a plea puis 
  darrein continuance at the common law. For example, where, pending a suit, 
  and after replication and issue joined, the defendant having obtained a 
  release and attempted to prove it viva voce at the bearing, it was 
  determined that the release not being in issue in the cause, the court could 
  not try the facts, or direct a trial at law for that purpose, and that a new 
  bill must be filed to put the release in issue. Mitf. Pl. 75, 76 Coop. Eq. 
  Pl. 85; 1 Harr. Ch. Pr. 135. 
      27. A cross bill must be brought before publication is passed on the 
  first bill, 1 Johns. Ch. R. 62, and not after, except the plaintiff in the 
  cross bill go to the hearing on the depositions already published; because 
  of the danger of perjury and subornation, if the parties should, after 
  publication of the former depositions, examine witnesses, de novo, to the 
  same matter before examined into. 7 Johns. Ch. Rep. 250; Nels. Ch. R. 103. 
      28. - 2. A bill of review. Bills of review are in the nature of writs of 
  error. They are brought to have decrees of the court reviewed, altered, or 
  reversed, and there are two sorts of these bills. The first is brought where 
  the decree has been signed and enrolled and the second, where the decree has 
  not been signed and enrolled. 1 Ch. Cas. 54; 3 P. Wms. 371. The first of 
  these is called, by way of preeminence, a bill of review; while the other is 
  distinguished by the appellation of a bill in the nature of a bill of 
  review, or a supplemental bill iii the nature of a bill of review. Coop. Eq. 
  Pl. 88; 2 Madd. Ch. Pr. 537. 
      29. A bill of review must be either for error in point of law; 2 Johns. 
  C. R. 488; Coop. Eq. Pl. 89; or for some new matter of fact, relevant to the 
  case, discovered since publication passed in the cause; and which could not, 
  with reasonable diligence, have been discovered before. 2 Johns. C. R. 488; 
  Coop. Eq. Pl. 94. See 3 Johns. R. 124, 
      30. - 3. Bill to impeach a decree on the ground of fraud. When a decree 
  has been obtained by fraud, it may be impeached by original bill, without 
  leave of court. As the principal point in issue, is the fraud in obtaining 
  it, it must be established before the propriety of the decree can be 
  investigated, and the fraud must be distinctly stated in the bill. The 
  prayer must necessarily be varied according to the nature of the fraud used, 
  and the extent of its operation in obtaining an improper decision of the 
  court. When the decree to set aside a fraudulent decree has been obtained, 
  the court will restore the parties to their former situation, whatever their 
  rights may be. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 84; Sto. Eq. Pl. Sec. 426. 
      31. - 4. Bill to suspend a decree. The operation of a decree may be 
  suspended under special circumstances, or avoided by matter subsequent to 
  the decrees upon a new bill for that purpose. See 1 Ch. Cas. 3, 61 2 Ch . 
  Cal 8 Mitf. Eq. Pl. 85 , 86. 
      32. - 5. Bill to carry a decree into execution. This is one which is 
  filed when from the neglect of parties, or some other cause, it may become 
  impossible to carry a decree into execution without the further decree of 
  the court. Hinde, 68; 1 Harr. Ch. 148. 
      33. - 6. Bills partaking of the qualities of some one or more of other 
  bills. These are, 
      34. First. Bill in the nature of a bill of revivor. A bill in the nature 
  of a bill of revivor, is one which is filed when the death of a party, whose 
  interest is not determined by his death, is attended with such a 
  transmission of his interest, that the title to it, as well as the person 
  entitled, may be litigated in the court of chancery, as in the case of a 
  devise of real estate, the suit is not permitted to be continued by bill of 
  revivor. 1 Ch. Cas. 123; Id. 174; 3 Ch. Rep. 39; Mosely, R. 44. In such 
  cases an original bill, upon which the title may be litigated, must be 
  filed, and this bill will have so far the effect of a bill of revivor, that 
  if the, title of the representative by the act of the deceased party is 
  established, the same benefit may be had of the proceedings upon the former 
  bill, as if the suit had been continued by bill of revivor. 1 Vern. 427; 2 
  Vern. 548 Id. 672; 2 Bro. P. C. 529; 1 Eq. Cas. Ab. 83; Mitf. Pl. 66, 67. 
      35. Secondly. Bill in the nature. of a supplemental bill. An original 
  bill in the nature of a supplemental bill, is one filed when the interest of 
  the plaintiff or defendant, suing or defending, wholly determines, and the 
  same property becomes vested in another person not claiming under him. 
  Hinde, 71; Blake's Ch. Pr. 38. The principal difference between this and a 
  supplemental bill, seems to be, that a supplemental bill is applicable to 
  such cases only, where the same parties or the same interests remain before 
  the court; whereas, an original bill in the nature of a supplemental bill, 
  is properly applicable where new parties, with new interests, arising from 
  events occurring since the institution of the suit, are brought before the 
  court. Coop. Eq. Pl. 75; Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 345. 
      36. Thirdly. Bill in the nature of a bill of review. A bill in the 
  nature of a bill of review, is one brought by a person not bound by a 
  decree, praying that the same may be examined and reversed; as where a 
  decree is made against a person who has no interest at all in the matter in 
  dispute, or had not an interest sufficient to render the decree against him 
  binding upon some person claiming after him. Relief may be obtained against 
  error in the decree, by a bill in the nature of a bill of review. This bill 
  in its frame resembles a bill of review, except that instead of praying that 
  the former decree may be reviewed and reversed, it prays that the cause may 
  be heard with respect to the new matter made the subject of the supplemental 
  bill, at the same time that it is reheard upon the original bill; and that 
  the plaintiff may have such relief as the nature of the case made by the 
  supplemental bill may require. 1 Harr. Ch. P. 145. 
      37. There are also bills which derive their names from the object which 
  the complainant has in view. These will be separately considered. 
      38.- 1. Bill of foreclosure. A bill of foreclosure is one filed by a 
  mortgagee against the mortgagor, for the purpose of having the estate, sold, 
  thereby to obtain the sum mortgaged on the premises, with interest and 
  costs. 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 528. As to the persons who are to be made parties to 
  a bill of foreclosure, see Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 199-202. 
      39. - 2. Bill of information. A bill of information is a bill instituted 
  in behalf of the state, or those whose rights are the object of its care and 
  protection. It is commenced by information exhibited in the name of the 
  attorney-general, and differs from other bills little more than in name. If 
  the suit immediately concerns the right of the state, the information is 
  generally exhibited without a relator. If it does not immediately concern 
  those rights, it is conducted at the instance and under the immediate 
  direction of, some person whose name is inserted in the information, and is 
  termed the relator; the officers of the state, in such or the like cases, 
  are not further concerned than as they are instructed and advised by those 
  whose rights the state is called upon to protect and establish. Blake's Ch. 
  Pl. 50; see Harr. Ch. Pr. 151. 
      40. - 3. Bill to marshal assets. A bill to marshal assets is one filed 
  in favor of simple contract creditors, and of legatees, devisees, and heirs, 
  but not in favor of next of kin, to prevent specialty. creditors from 
  exhausting the personal estate. See Marshaling of Assets. 
      41. - 4. Bill to marshal securities. A bill to marshal securities is one 
  which is filed against a party who has two funds by which his debt is 
  secured, by a person having an interest in only one of those funds. As if A 
  has two mortgages and B has but one, B has a right to throw A upon the 
  security which B cannot touch. 2 Atk. 446; see 8 Ves. 388, 395. This last 
  case contains a luminous exposition in all its bearings. In Pennsylvania, 
  and perhaps in some other states, the object of this bill is reached by 
  subrogation, (q. v.) that is, by substituting the creditor, having but one 
  fund to resort to, to the rights of the other creditor, in respect to the 
  other fund. 
      42. - 5. Bill for a new trial. This is a bill filed in a court of equity 
  praying for an injunction after judgment at law, when there is any fact, 
  which renders it against conscience to execute such judgment, and of which 
  the injured party could not avail himself in a court of law-, or, if he 
  could, was prevented by fraud or accident, unmixed with any fault or 
  negligence of himself or his agents. Mitf. Pl. by Jer. 131; 2 Story Eq. Sec. 
  887. Of late years bills of this description are not countenanced. Id.201 
  John. Ch. R. 432 6 John. Ch. R. 479. 
      43. - 6. Bill of peace. A bill of peace is one which is filed when a 
  person has a right which may be controverted by various persons, at 
  different times, and by different actions. In such a case the court will 
  prevent a multiplicity of suits, by directing an issue to determine the 
  right, and ultimately grant an injunction. 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 166; 1 Harr. Ch. 
  Pr. 104; Blake's Ch. Pr. 48; 2 Story, Eq. Jur. Sec. 852 to 860; Jeremy on 
  Eq. Jurisd. 343 2 John. Ch. R. 281; 8 Cranch, R. 426. 
      44. There is another class of cases in which a bill of peace is now 
  ordinarily applied; namely, when the plaintiff, after repeated and 
  satisfactory trials, has established his right at law, and is still in 
  danger of new attempts to controvert it. In order to quiet the possession of 
  the plaintiff, and to suppress future litigation, courts of equity, under 
  such circumstances, will interfere, and grant a perpetual injunction. 3 
  John. R. 529; 8 Cranch, R. 462; Mit. Pl. by Jeremy, 143; 2 John. Ch. R. 281; 
  Ed. on Inj. 356. 
      45. - 7. Bill quia timet. A bill quia timet, is one which is filed when 
  a person is entitled to property of a personal nature after another's death, 
  and has reason to apprehend it may be destroyed by the present possessor; or 
  when he is apprehensive of being subjected to a future inconvenience, 
  probable or even possible to happen or be occasioned by the neglect, 
  inadvertence, or culpability of another. Upon a proper case being made out, 
  the court will, in one case, secure the property for the use of the party 
  (which is the object of the bill) by compelling the person in possession of 
  it, to give a proper security against any subsequent disposition or willful 
  destruction and in the other case, they will quiet the party's apprehension 
  of future inconvenience, by removing the causes which may lead to it. 1 
  Harr. Ch. Pr. 107; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 218: Blake's Ch. Pr. 37, 47; 2 Story, Eq. 
  Jur. Sec. 825 to 851. Vide, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t. 
  
  

Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  BILL, legislation. An instrument drawn or presented by a member or committee 
  to a legislative body for its approbation and enactment. After it has gone 
  through both houses and received the constitutional sanction of the chief 
  magistrate, where such approbation is requisite, it becomes a law. See 
  Meigs, R. 237. 
  
  

Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  BILL, merc. law. An account containing the items of goods sold, or of work 
  done by one person against another. It differs from an account stated (q. 
  v.) in this, that the latter is a bill approved and sanctioned by the 
  debtor, whereas a bill is made out by the creditor alone. 
  
  

Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  BILL, contracts. A bill or obligation, (which are the same thing, except 
  that in English it is commonly called bill, but in Latin obligatio, 
  obligation,) is a deed whereby the obligor acknowledges himself to owe unto 
  the obligee a certain sum of money or some other thing, in which, besides 
  the names of the parties, are to be considered the sum or thing due, the 
  time, place, and manner of payment or delivery thereof. It may be indented, 
  or poll, and with or without a penalty. West's Symboleography s. 100, 101, 
  and the various forms there given. 
  
  

Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  BILL, SINGLE, contracts. A writing by which one person or more, promises to 
  another or others, to pay him or them a sum of money at a time therein 
  specified, without any condition. It is usually under seal; and when so, it 
  is sometimes, if not commonly, called a bill obligatory. (q. v.) 2 S. & R. 
  115. 
       2. It differs from a promissory note in this, that the latter is always 
  payable to order; and from a bond, because that instrument has always a 
  condition attached to it, on the performance of which it is satisfied. 5 
  Com. Dig. 194; 7 Com. 357. 
  
  

Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  BILL, TRUE. A true bill is an indictment approved of by a grand jury. Vide 
  Billa Vera; True Bill. 
  
  

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