2 dicționare găsite pentru bulgaria
Din dicționarul WordNet (r) 2.0 :
Bulgaria n : a republic in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe [syn: Republic of Bulgaria]Din dicționarul CIA World Factbook 2002 :
Bulgaria Introduction Bulgaria --------------------- Background: The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Bulgaria regained its independence in 1878, but having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, it fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. Today, reforms and democratization keep Bulgaria on a path toward eventual integration into NATO and the EU - with which it began accession negotiations in 2000. Geography Bulgaria ------------------ Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E Map references: Europe Area: total: 110,910 sq km water: 360 sq km land: 110,550 sq km Area - comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee Land boundaries: total: 1,808 km border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Yugoslavia 318 km, Turkey 240 km Coastline: 354 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Musala 2,925 m Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land Land use: arable land: 39% permanent crops: 1.8% other: 59.19% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 8,000 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Geography - note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia People Bulgaria --------------- Population: 7,621,337 (July 2002 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.6% (male 572,961; female 543,004) 15-64 years: 68.5% (male 2,569,199; female 2,648,461) 65 years and over: 16.9% (male 540,109; female 747,603) (2002 est.) Population growth rate: -1.11% (2002 est.) Birth rate: 8.05 births/1,000 population (2002 est.) Death rate: 14.42 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.) Net migration rate: -4.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/ female total population: 0.94 male(s)/ female (2002 est.) Infant mortality rate: 14.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.5 years female: 75.22 years (2002 est.) male: 67.98 years Total fertility rate: 1.13 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 346 (2000) AIDS: HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.) Nationality: noun: Bulgarian(s) adjective: Bulgarian Ethnic groups: Bulgarian 83.6%, Turk 9.5%, Roma 4.6%, other 2.3% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (1998) Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 83.8%, Muslim 12.1%, Roman Catholic 1.7%, Jewish 0.8%, Protestant, Gregorian- Armenian, and other 1.6% (1998) Languages: Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: 99% female: 98% (1999) Government Bulgaria ------------------- Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria conventional short form: Bulgaria Government type: parliamentary democracy Capital: Sofia Administrative divisions: 28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora, Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol Independence: 3 March 1878 (from Ottoman Empire) National holiday: Liberation Day, 3 March (1878) Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991 Legal system: civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Georgi PARVANOV (since 22 January 2002); Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002) head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA (since 24 July 2001); Deputy Prime Ministers Nikolay VASILEV (since 24 July 2001), Kostadin PASKALEV (since 24 July 2001), and Lidiya SHULEVA (since 24 July 2001) cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 11 November and 18 November 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister election results: Georgi PARVANOV elected president; percent of vote - Georgi PARVANOV 54.13%, Petar STOYANOV 45.87% Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 17 June 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - NMS2 42.74%, UHdDF 18.18%, CFB 17.15%, MRF 7.45%; seats by party - NMS2 120, UHdDF 51, CFB 48, MRF 21; note - seating as of February 2002 - NMS2 115, UHdDF 51, CFB 48, MRF 21, independents 5 Judicial branch: Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation; Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members; responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary) Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Radical Union [Evgeniy BAKURDZHIEV]; Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Coalition for Bulgaria or CFB (bloc led by BSP, includes Ecoglasnost Political Club and Bulgarian Agrarian National Union) [leader NA]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or VMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHNOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon SAXE-COBURG- GOTHA]; New Civic Party for Bulgaria [Bogomil BONEV]; People's Union or PU (includes Bulgarian Agrarian National Union and Democratic Party) [Anastasiya MOZER]; St. George's Day [Lyuben DILOV, Jr.]; Union of Democratic Forces or UHdDF [Ekaterina MIKHAYLOVA]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces (consisting of UHdDF and People's Union) [Ekaterina MIKHAYLOVA] Political pressure groups and agrarian movement; Bulgarian leaders: Democratic Center; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Democratic Alliance for the Republic or DAR; New Union for Democracy or NUD; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas International organization ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, participation: CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador- designate Elena POPTODOROVA consulate(s): New York FAX:  (202) 234-7973 telephone:  (202) 387-7969 chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Richard US: M. MILES embassy: 1 Suborna Street, Sofia mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5740 telephone:  (2) 937-5100 FAX:  (2) 981-89-77 Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control) Economy Bulgaria ---------------- Economy - overview: Bulgaria, a former communist country striving to enter the European Union, has experienced macroeconomic stability and positive growth rates since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the fall of the then socialist government. The current government, elected in 2001, has pledged to maintain the fundamental economic policy objectives of its predecessor, i.e., retaining the Currency Board, practicing sound financial policies, accelerating privatization, and pursuing structural reforms. A $300 million stand-by agreement negotiated with the IMF at the end of 2001 will help the government maintain economic stability as it seeks to overcome high rates of poverty and unemployment. GDP: purchasing power parity - $48 billion (2001 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2001 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,200 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14.5% industry: 27.8% services: 57.7% (2000) Population below poverty line: 35% (2000 est.) Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 4.5% percentage share: highest 10%: 22.8% (1997) Distribution of family income - Gini 34.1 (1997) index: Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.5% (2001 est.) Labor force: 3.83 million (2000 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 26%, industry 31%, services 43% (1998 est.) Unemployment rate: 17.5% (2001 est.) Budget: revenues: $5.57 billion expenditures: $5.68 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.) Industries: electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2001 est.) Electricity - production: 38.84 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 47.9% hydro: 7.54% other: 0.1% (2000) nuclear: 44.46% Electricity - consumption: 34.42 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - exports: 3.2 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - imports: 1.5 billion kWh (2000) Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets Exports: $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.) Exports - commodities: clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels Exports - partners: Italy 14%, Turkey 10%, Germany 9%, Greece 8%, Yugoslavia 8% (2000) Imports: $6.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.) Imports - commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials; machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; food, textiles Imports - partners: Russia 24%, Germany 14%, Italy 8%, Greece 5%, France 5% (2000) Debt - external: $10.2 billion (2001 est.) Economic aid - recipient: $1 billion (1999 est.) Currency: lev (BGL) Currency code: BGL Exchange rates: leva per US dollar - 2.2147 (January 2002), 2.1847 (2001), 2.1233 (2000), 1.8364 (1999), 1,760.36 (1998), 1,681.88 (1997) note: on 5 July 1999, the lev was redenominated; the post-5 July 1999 lev is equal to 1,000 of the pre- 5 July 1999 lev Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Bulgaria ----------------------- Telephones - main lines in use: 3,186,731 (2001) Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.054 million (2001) Telephone system: general assessment: extensive but antiquated domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential; telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio relay international: direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) Radio broadcast stations: AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001) Radios: 4.51 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001) Televisions: 3.31 million (1997) Internet country code: .bg Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 200 (2001) Internet users: 585,000 (2001) Transportation Bulgaria ----------------------- Railways: total: 4,294 km standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435- m gauge (2,710 km electrified) narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2002) Highways: total: 37,288 km paved: 33,786 km (including 324 km of expressways) unpaved: 3,502 km (2001) Waterways: 470 km (1987) Pipelines: petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,500 km (1999) Ports and harbors: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin Merchant marine: total: 77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 881,758 GRT/1,312,833 DWT ships by type: bulk 43, cargo 15, chemical tanker 4, container 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3, short- sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1 (2002 est.) Airports: 215 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 129 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 19 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 93 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15 Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 86 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 74 (2001) Heliports: 1 (2001) Military Bulgaria ----------------- Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (subordinate to Ministry of Defense), Internal Forces (subordinate to Ministry of Interior), Civil Defense Forces (subordinate to the president) Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,873,052 (2002 est.) Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,566,816 (2002 service: est.) Military manpower - reaching military males: 56,104 (2002 est.) age annually: Military expenditures - dollar $356 million (FY02) figure: Military expenditures - percent of 2.7% (FY02) GDP: Transnational Issues Bulgaria ----------------------------- Disputes - international: because of a shift in the Danube course since the last correction of the boundary in 1920, a joint Bulgarian-Romanian team will recommend sovereignty changes to several islands and redefine the boundary Illicit drugs: major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals
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