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action


7 dicționare găsite pentru action
Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Action \Ac"tion\, n. [OF. action, L. actio, fr. agere to do. See
     Act.]
     1. A process or condition of acting or moving, as opposed to
        rest; the doing of something; exertion of power or force,
        as when one body acts on another; the effect of power
        exerted on one body by another; agency; activity;
        operation; as, the action of heat; a man of action.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              One wise in council, one in action brave. --Pope.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. An act; a thing done; a deed; an enterprise. (pl.):
        Habitual deeds; hence, conduct; behavior; demeanor.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              The Lord is a Good of knowledge, and by him actions
              are weighed.                          --1 Sam. ii.
                                                    3.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     3. The event or connected series of events, either real or
        imaginary, forming the subject of a play, poem, or other
        composition; the unfolding of the drama of events.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     4. Movement; as, the horse has a spirited action.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     5. (Mech.) Effective motion; also, mechanism; as, the breech
        action of a gun.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     6. (Physiol.) Any one of the active processes going on in an
        organism; the performance of a function; as, the action of
        the heart, the muscles, or the gastric juice.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     7. (Orat.) Gesticulation; the external deportment of the
        speaker, or the suiting of his attitude, voice, gestures,
        and countenance, to the subject, or to the feelings.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     8. (Paint. & Sculp.) The attitude or position of the several
        parts of the body as expressive of the sentiment or
        passion depicted.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     9. (Law)
        (a) A suit or process, by which a demand is made of a
            right in a court of justice; in a broad sense, a
            judicial proceeding for the enforcement or protection
            of a right, the redress or prevention of a wrong, or
            the punishment of a public offense.
        (b) A right of action; as, the law gives an action for
            every claim.
            [1913 Webster]
  
     10. (Com.) A share in the capital stock of a joint-stock
         company, or in the public funds; hence, in the plural,
         equivalent to stocks. [A Gallicism] [Obs.]
         [1913 Webster]
  
               The Euripus of funds and actions.    --Burke.
         [1913 Webster]
  
     11. An engagement between troops in war, whether on land or
         water; a battle; a fight; as, a general action, a partial
         action.
         [1913 Webster]
  
     12. (Music) The mechanical contrivance by means of which the
         impulse of the player's finger is transmitted to the
         strings of a pianoforte or to the valve of an organ pipe.
         --Grove.
         [1913 Webster]
  
     Chose in action. (Law) See Chose.
  
     Quantity of action (Physics), the product of the mass of a
        body by the space it runs through, and its velocity.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     Syn: Action, Act.
  
     Usage: In many cases action and act are synonymous; but some
            distinction is observable. Action involves the mode or
            process of acting, and is usually viewed as occupying
            some time in doing. Act has more reference to the
            effect, or the operation as complete.
  
                  To poke the fire is an act, to reconcile friends
                  who have quarreled is a praiseworthy action.
                                                    --C. J. Smith.
            [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul WordNet (r) 2.0 :

  action
       n 1: something done (usually as opposed to something said);
            "there were stories of murders and other unnatural
            actions"
       2: the state of being active; "his sphere of activity"; "he is
          out of action" [syn: activity, activeness] [ant: inaction,
           inaction, inaction]
       3: a judicial proceeding brought by one party against another;
          one party prosecutes another for a wrong done or for
          protection of a right or for prevention of a wrong [syn: legal
          action, action at law]
       4: an act by a government body or supranational organization;
          "recent federal action undermined the segregationist
          position"; "the United Nations must have the power to
          propose and organize action without being hobbled by
          irrelevant issues"; "the Union action of emancipating
          Southern slaves"
       5: a military engagement; "he saw action in Korea" [syn: military
          action]
       6: a process existing in or produced by nature (rather than by
          the intent of human beings); "the action of natural
          forces"; "volcanic activity" [syn: natural process, natural
          action, activity]
       7: the series of events that form a plot; "his novels always
          have a lot of action"
       8: the operating part that transmits power to a mechanism; "the
          piano had a very stiff action" [syn: action mechanism]
       9: the trait of being active and energetic and forceful; "a man
          of action"
       10: the most important or interesting work or activity in a
           specific area or field; "the action is no longer in
           technology stocks but in municipal bonds"; "gawkers
           always try to get as close to the action as possible"
       v 1: institute legal proceedings against; file a suit against;
            "He was warned that the district attorney would process
            him"; "She actioned the company for discrimination"
            [syn: sue, litigate, process]
       2: put in effect; "carry out a task"; "execute the decision of
          the people"; "He actioned the operation" [syn: carry
          through, accomplish, execute, carry out, fulfill,
           fulfil]

Din dicționarul Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0 :

  341 Moby Thesaurus words for "action":
     accomplished fact, accomplishment, achievement, act, acta, actions,
     activeness, activism, activity, acts, ad hoc measure, address,
     adventure, aerial combat, affectation, affray, agency, air,
     amphibious operations, anagnorisis, angle, answer, architectonics,
     architecture, argument, armored combat, artifice, atmosphere,
     automatic control, award, background, ball, battle, battle royal,
     bearing, behavior, behavior pattern, behavioral norm,
     behavioral science, big time, blow, brush, bullfight, business,
     carriage, cascade control, case, catastrophe, cause,
     cause in court, characterization, clash, clash of arms, clockworks,
     cockfight, color, combat, combined operations, complication,
     comportment, condemnation, conduct, conflict, consideration,
     continuity, contrivance, control action, countermove, coup,
     course of action, culture pattern, custom, dealings, decision,
     decree, deed, deliverance, demarche, demeanor, denouement,
     deportment, design, determination, development, device, diagnosis,
     dictum, direction, discharge, dodge, dogfight, doing, doings, doom,
     drive train, driving, dry run, effect, effectiveness, effectuation,
     effort, electronic control, embroilment, encounter, endeavor,
     energy, engagement, enterprise, episode, exchange of blows,
     execution, exercise, exertion, expedient, exploit, fable,
     fait accompli, falling action, feat, feedback control, fight,
     fighting, finding, fire fight, fluid operations, folkway, force,
     fray, fulfillment, fun, fun and games, function, functioning,
     funmaking, game, gear, gest, gestures, gimmick, go, goings-on,
     good time, great fun, ground combat, guise, hand,
     hand-to-hand combat, hand-to-hand fight, handiwork, handling,
     high old time, high time, house-to-house combat, improvisation,
     incident, influence, initiative, innards, job, judicial process,
     jury-rig, jury-rigged expedient, last expedient, last resort,
     last shift, laughs, lawsuit, legal action, legal case,
     legal proceedings, legal process, legal remedy, line, litigation,
     liveliness, local color, logistics, lovely time, machinery,
     maintien, makeshift, management, maneuver, maneuvers, manipulation,
     manner, manners, means, measure, mechanism, method, methodology,
     methods, mien, militancy, military operations, minor operations,
     mission, modus vivendi, mood, motif, motion, motions, move,
     movement, movements, moves, mythos, naval combat,
     observable behavior, occupation, operancy, operation, operations,
     order, overseas operations, overt act, passage, passage of arms,
     pattern, performance, performing, peripeteia, picnic, pis aller,
     pitched battle, plan, play, pleasant time, plot, poise,
     political activism, port, pose, posture, power, power train,
     practice, praxis, precedent, presence, procedure, proceeding,
     proceedings, process, production, prognosis, pronouncement,
     prosecution, quarrel, reaction, recognition, remedy, res gestae,
     resolution, resort, resource, responsibility, rising action,
     robot control, ruling, rumble, running, running fight, scheme,
     scramble, scrimmage, scuffle, secondary plot, sentence,
     servo control, servomechanism, shake-up, shift, shoving match,
     skirmish, slant, social science, solution, sortie, spirit, sport,
     staff work, stand-up fight, steering, step, stir, stopgap, story,
     stratagem, street fight, strength, stroke, stroke of policy,
     structure, struggle, stunt, style, subject, subplot, suit,
     suit at law, supervisory control, switch, tactic, tactics,
     tauromachy, temporary expedient, thematic development, theme,
     thing, thing done, tone, topic, tour de force, transaction, trick,
     trump, tug-of-war, turn, tussle, twist, undertaking, verdict,
     vigor, vim, vitality, war game, war plans, watchworks, way,
     way of life, ways, wheels, wheels within wheels, work, working,
     working hypothesis, working proposition, workings, works  
     
Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  ACTION, PROHIBITORY, civil law. An action instituted to avoid a sale on
  account of some Vice or defect in the thing sold which readers it either
  absolutely useless, or its use so inconvenient and, imperfect, that it must
  be, supposed the buyer would not have purchased it, had he known of the
  vice. Civ. Code of Louis. art. 2496.
  
  

Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  ACTION, French com. law. Stock in a company, shares in a corporation.
  
  

Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  ACTION, in practice. Actio nihil aliud est, quam jus persequendi in judicio
  quod sibi debetur. Just. Inst. Lib. 4, tit. 6; Vinnius, Com. Actions are
  divided into criminal and civil. Bac. Abr. Actions, A.
       2.-1.  A criminal action is a prosecution in a court of justice in
  the name of the government, against one or more individuals accused of a
  crime. See 1 Chitly's Cr. Law.
       3.-2. A civil action is a legal demand of one's right, or it is the
  form given by law for the recovery of that which is due. Co. Litt. 285; 3
  Bl. Com. 116; 9 Bouv. Inst. n. 2639; Domat. Supp. des Lois Civiles, liv. 4,
  tit. 1, No. 1; Poth. Introd. generale aux Coutumes, 109; 1 Sell. Pr. Introd.
  s. 4, p. 73. Ersk. Princ. of Scot. Law, B. 41 t. 1. Sec. 1. Till judgment
  the writ is properly called an action, but not after, and therefore, a
  release of all actions is regularly no bar of all execution. Co. Litt. 289
  a; Roll. Ab. 291. They are real, personal and mixed. An action is real or
  personal, according as realty or personalty is recovered; not according to
  the nature of the defence. Willes' Rep. 134.
       4.-1. Real actions are those brought for the specific recovery of
  lands, tenements, or hereditaments. Steph. Pl. 3. They are either
  procedural, when the demandant seeks to recover the property; or possessory
  when he endeavors to obtain the possession. Finch's Law, 257, 8. See Bac.
  Abr. Actions, A, contra. Real Actions are, 1st. Writs of right; 2dly, Writs
  of entry, which lie in the per, the per et cui, or the post, upon disseisin,
  intrusion, or alienation. 3dly. Writs ancestral possessory, as Mort d'
  ancester, aid, vbesaiel[?], cosinage, or Nuper obiit. Com. Dig. Actions, D
  2. By these actions formerly all disputes concerning real estate, were
  decided; but now they are pretty generally laid aside in practice, upon
  account of the great nicety required in their management, and the
  inconvenient length of their process; a much more expeditious, method of
  trying titles being since introduced by other actions, personal and mixed. 3
  Bl. Com. 118. See Booth on Real Actions.
       5.-2. Personal actions are those brought for the specific recovery of
  goods and chattels; or for damages or other redress for breach of contract,
  or other injuries, of whatever description; the specific recovery of lands,
  tenements, and hereditaments only excepted. Steph. Pl. 3; Com. Dig. Actions,
  D 3; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2641. Personal actions arise either upon contracts, or
  for wrongs independently of contracts. The former are account, assumpsit,
  covenant, debt, and detinue; see these words. In Connecticut and Vermont
  there is, an action used which is peculiar to those states, called the
  action of book debt. 2 Swift's Syst. Ch. 15. The actions for wrongs,
  injuries, or torts, are trespass on the case, replevin, trespass, trover.
  See these words, and see Actio personalis moritur cum persona.
       6.-3. Mixed actions are such as appertain, in some degree, to both
  the former classes, and, therefore, are properly reducible to neither of
  them, being brought for the specific recovery of lands, tenements, or
  hereditaments, and for damages for injury sustained in respect of such
  property. Steph. Pl. 3; Co. Litt. 284, b; Com. Dig. Actions, D 4.  Every
  mixed action, properly so called, is also a real action. The action of
  ejectment is a personal action, and formerly, a count for an assault and
  battery might be joined with a count for the recovery of a term of Years in
  land.
       7. Actions are also divided into those which are local and such as are
  transitory.
          1. A local action is one in which the venue must still be laid in
  the county, in which the cause of action actually arose. The locality of
  actions is founded in some cases, on common law principles, in others on the
  statute law.
       8. Of those which continue local, by the common law, are, 1st, all
  actions in which the subject or thing to be recovered is in its nature
  local.  Of this class are real actions, actions of waste, when brought on
  the statute of Gloucester, (6 Edw. I.) to recover with the damages, the
  locus in quo or place wasted; and actions of ejectment. Bac. Abr. Actions
  Local, &c. A, a; Com. Dig. Actions, N 1; 7 Co. 2 b; 2 Bl. Rep. 1070. All
  these are local, because they are brought to recover the seisin or
  possession of lands or tenements, which are local subjects.
       9.-2dly. Various actions which do not seek the direct recovery of
  lands or tenements, are also local, by the common law; because they arise
  out of some local subject, or the violation of some local right or interest.
  
  For example, the action of quare impedit is local, inasmuch as the benefice,
  in the right of presentation to which the plaintiff complains of being
  obstructed, is so.  7 Co. 3 a; 1 Chit. Pl. 271; Com. Dig. Actions, N 4.
  Within this class of cases are also many actions in which only pecuniary
  damages are recoverable.  Such are the common law action of waste, and
  trespass quare clausum fregit; as likewise trespass on the case for injuries
  affecting things real, as for nuisances to houses or lands; disturbance of
  rights of way or of common; obstruction or diversion of ancient water
  courses, &c. 1 Chit. Pl. 271; Gould on Pl. ch. 3, Sec. 105, 106, 107. The
  action of replevin, also, though it lies for damages only, and does not
  arise out of the violation of any local right, is nevertheless local. 1
  Saund. 347, n. 1. The reason of its locality appears to be the necessity of
  giving a local description of the taking complained of. Gould on Pl. ch. 3,
  Sec. 111. A scire facias upon a record, (which is an action, 2 Term Rep.
  46,) although to some intents, a continuation of the original suit, 1 Term
  Rep. 388, is also local.
      10.-2. Personal actions which seek nothing more than the recovery of
  money or personal chattels of any kind, are in most cases transitory,
  whether they sound in tort or in contract; Com. Dig. Actions, N 12; 1 Chit.
  Pl. 273; because actions of this class are, in most instances, founded on
  the violation of rights which, in contemplation of law, have no locality. 1
  Saund. 241, b, note 6. And it will be found true, as a general position,
  that actions ex delicto, in which a mere personalty is recoverable, are, by
  the common law, transitory; except when founded upon, or arising out of some
  local subject. Gould on Pl. ch. 3, Sec. 112.  The venue in a transitory
  action may be laid in any county which the plaintiff may prefer. Bac. Abr.
  Actions Local, &c. A. (a.)
      11. In the civil law actions are divided into real, personal, and mixed.
  
  A real action, according to the civil law, is that which he who is the owner
  of a thing, or, has a right in it, has against him who is in possession of
  it, to compel him to give up the plaintiff, or to permit him to enjoy the
  right he has in it. It is a right which a person has in a thing, follows the
  thing, and may be instituted against him who possesses it; and this whether
  the thing be movable or immovable and, in the sense of the common law,
  whether the thing be real or personal. See Domat, Supp. des Lois Civiles,
  Liv. 4, tit. 1, n. 5; Pothier, Introd. Generales aux Coutumes 110; Ersk. Pr.
  Scot. Law, B. 4, t. 1, Sec. 2.
      12. A personal action is that which a creditor has against his debtor,
  to compel him to fulfill his engagement. Pothier, lb. Personal actions are
  divided into civil actions and criminal actions. The former are those which
  are instituted to compel the payment or to do some other thing purely civil
  the latter are those by which the plaintiff asks the reparation of a tort or
  injury which he or those who belong to him have sustained.  Sometimes these
  two kinds of actions are united when they assume the name of mixed personal
  actions. Domat, Supp. des Lois Civiles, Liv. 4, tit. 1, n. 4; 1 Brown's Civ.
  Law, 440.
      13. Mixed actions participate both of personal and real actions. Such
  are the actions of partition, and to compel the parties to put down
  landmarks or boundaries. Domat, ubi supra.
  
  

Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  ACTION. Conduct, behaviour, something done. Nomen actionis latissime patere
  vulgo notum est ac comprehenders omnem omnino viventis operationem quae
  passioni opponitur. Vinnius, Com. lib. 4, tit. 6. De actionibus.
      2. Human actions have been divided into necessary actions, or those over
  which man has no control; and into free actions, or such as he can control
  at his pleasure.  As man is responsible only when he exerts his will, it is
  clear lie can be punished only for the latter.
       3. Actions are also divided into positives and negative the former is
  called an act of commission the latter is the omission of something which
  ought to be done, and is called an act of omission. A man may be responsible
  as well for acts of omission, as for acts of commission.
       4. Actions are voluntary and involuntary.  The former are performed
  freely and without constraint - the latter are performed not by choice,
  against one's will or in a manner independent of the will. In general a man
  is not responsible for his involuntary actions.  Yet it has been ruled that
  if a lunatic hurt a man, he shall be answerable in trespass, although, if he
  kill a man, it is not felony. See Hob. Rep. 134; Popham, 162; Pam. N. P. 68.
  See also Duress; Will.
  
  

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