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battery


4 dicționare găsite pentru battery
Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Battery \Bat"ter*y\, n.; pl. Batteries. [F. batterie, fr.
     battre. See Batter, v. t.]
     1. The act of battering or beating.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. (Law) The unlawful beating of another. It includes every
        willful, angry and violent, or negligent touching of
        another's person or clothes, or anything attached to his
        person or held by him.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     3. (Mil.)
        (a) Any place where cannon or mortars are mounted, for
            attack or defense.
        (b) Two or more pieces of artillery in the field.
        (c) A company or division of artillery, including the
            gunners, guns, horses, and all equipments. In the
            United States, a battery of flying artillery consists
            usually of six guns.
            [1913 Webster]
  
     Barbette battery. See Barbette.
  
     Battery d'enfilade, or Enfilading battery, one that
        sweeps the whole length of a line of troops or part of a
        work.
  
     Battery en ['e]charpe, one that plays obliquely.
  
     Battery gun, a gun capable of firing a number of shots
        simultaneously or successively without stopping to load.
        
  
     Battery wagon, a wagon employed to transport the tools and
        materials for repair of the carriages, etc., of the
        battery.
  
     In battery, projecting, as a gun, into an embrasure or over
        a parapet in readiness for firing.
  
     Masked battery, a battery artificially concealed until
        required to open upon the enemy.
  
     Out of battery, or From battery, withdrawn, as a gun, to
        a position for loading.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     4. (Elec.)
        (a) A number of coated jars (Leyden jars) so connected
            that they may be charged and discharged
            simultaneously.
        (b) An apparatus for generating voltaic electricity.
            [1913 Webster]
  
     Note: In the trough battery, copper and zinc plates,
           connected in pairs, divide the trough into cells, which
           are filled with an acid or oxidizing liquid; the effect
           is exhibited when wires connected with the two
           end-plates are brought together. In Daniell's
           battery, the metals are zinc and copper, the former in
           dilute sulphuric acid, or a solution of sulphate of
           zinc, the latter in a saturated solution of sulphate of
           copper. A modification of this is the common gravity
           battery, so called from the automatic action of the
           two fluids, which are separated by their specific
           gravities. In Grove's battery, platinum is the metal
           used with zinc; two fluids are used, one of them in a
           porous cell surrounded by the other. In Bunsen's or
           the carbon battery, the carbon of gas coke is
           substituted for the platinum of Grove's. In
           Leclanch['e]'s battery, the elements are zinc in a
           solution of ammonium chloride, and gas carbon
           surrounded with manganese dioxide in a porous cell. A
           secondary battery is a battery which usually has the
           two plates of the same kind, generally of lead, in
           dilute sulphuric acid, and which, when traversed by an
           electric current, becomes charged, and is then capable
           of giving a current of itself for a time, owing to
           chemical changes produced by the charging current. A
           storage battery is a kind of secondary battery used
           for accumulating and storing the energy of electrical
           charges or currents, usually by means of chemical work
           done by them; an accumulator.
           [1913 Webster]
  
     5. A number of similar machines or devices in position; an
        apparatus consisting of a set of similar parts; as, a
        battery of boilers, of retorts, condensers, etc.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     6. (Metallurgy) A series of stamps operated by one motive
        power, for crushing ores containing the precious metals.
        --Knight.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     7. The box in which the stamps for crushing ore play up and
        down.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     8. (Baseball) The pitcher and catcher together.
        [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul WordNet (r) 2.0 :

  battery
       n 1: group of guns or missile launchers operated together at one
            place
       2: a device that produces electricity; may have several primary
          or secondary cells arranged in parallel or series [syn: electric
          battery]
       3: a collection of related things intended for use together;
          "took a battery of achievement tests"
       4: a unit composed of the pitcher and catcher
       5: a series of stamps operated in one mortar for crushing ores
          [syn: stamp battery]
       6: the heavy fire of artillery to saturate an area rather than
          hit a specific target; "they laid down a barrage in front
          of the advancing troops"; "the shelling went on for hours
          without pausing" [syn: barrage, barrage fire, bombardment,
           shelling]
       7: an assault in which the assailant makes physical contact
          [syn: assault and battery]

Din dicționarul Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0 :

  185 Moby Thesaurus words for "battery":
     KP, Leyden jar, accumulator, amateur athlete, archer, army,
     army group, array, artillery, athlete, atomic battery, ballplayer,
     baseballer, baseman, bastinado, basting, batch, battalion, batter,
     battle group, beating, bells, belting, block, blocking back, body,
     bones, bowman, brigade, buffeting, bunch, bundle, cadre, caning,
     cannon, cannonry, castanets, catcher, celesta, cell, center, chime,
     chimes, clappers, clot, clubbing, clump, cluster, coach,
     coast artillery, cohort, column, combat command, combat team,
     company, competitor, corporal punishment, corps, cowhiding,
     crash cymbal, cricketer, cudgeling, cymbals, defensive lineman,
     detachment, detail, division, drubbing, dry cell,
     electronic battery, end, field army, field artillery, field train,
     file, finger cymbals, flagellation, flailing, flak, flogging,
     flying column, footballer, fuel cell, fustigation, gamelan,
     games-player, gamester, garrison, glockenspiel, gong, guard,
     handbells, heavy field artillery, horsewhipping, idiophone,
     infielder, jock, jumper, kit, kitchen police, lacing, lashing,
     legion, lineman, lot, lyra, maniple, maraca, marimba, metallophone,
     offensive lineman, orchestral bells, ordnance, organization,
     outfield, outfielder, outfit, pack, percussion,
     percussion instrument, percussions, percussive, phalanx,
     pistol-whipping, platoon, player, poloist, posse,
     professional athlete, pugilist, quarterback, racer, rank, rattle,
     rattlebones, rawhiding, regiment, scourging, section, series, set,
     siege artillery, siege engine, sizzler, skater, snappers,
     solar battery, spanking, sport, sportsman, squad, squadron,
     storage battery, storage cell, strapping, stripes, suit, suite,
     swingeing, switching, tackle, tactical unit, tailback, tam-tam,
     task force, thrashing, tintinnabula, tonitruone, toxophilite,
     train, trench artillery, triangle, troop, trouncing, truncheoning,
     tubular bells, unit, vibes, vibraphone, wet cell, whipping, wing,
     wingback, wrestler, xylophone  
     
Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  BATTERY. It is proposed to consider, 1. What is a battery; 2. When a 
  battery, may be justified. 
       2. - 1. A battery is the unlawful touching the person of another by the 
  aggressor himself, or any other substance put in motion by him. 1 Saund. 29, 
  b. n. 1; Id. 13 & 14, n. 3. It must be either willfully committed, or proceed 
  from want of due care. Str. 596; Hob. 134; Plowd. 19 3 Wend. 391. Hence an 
  injury, be it never so small, done to the person of another, in an angry, 
  spiteful, rude or insolent manner, as by spitting in his face, or any way 
  touching him in anger, or violently jostling him, are batteries in the eye 
  of the law. 1 Hawk. P. C. 263. See 1 Selw. N. P. 33, 4. And any thing 
  attached to the person partakes of its inviolability if, therefore, A 
  strikes a cane in the hands of B, it is a battery. 1 Dall. 1 14 1 Ch. Pr. 
  37; 1 Penn. R. 380; 1 Hill's R. 46; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 534 . 1 Baldw. R. 600. 
       3. - 2. A battery may be justified, 1. on the ground of the parental 
  relation 2. in the exercise of an office; 3. under process of a court of 
  justice or other legal tribunal 4. in aid of an authority in law; and 
  lastly, as a necessary means of defence. 
       4. First. As a salutary mode of correction. For example: a parent may 
  correct his child, a master his apprentice, a schoolmaster his scholar; 24 
  Edw. IV.; Easter, 17, p. 6 and a superior officer, one under his command. 
  Keilw. pl. 120, p. 136 Bull. N. P. 19 Bee, 161; 1 Bay, 3; 14 John. R. 119 15 
  Mass. 365; and vide Cowp. 173; 15 Mass. 347. 
       5. - 2. As a means to preserve the peace; and therefore if the 
  plaintiff assaults or is fighting with another, the defendant may lay hands 
  upon him, and restrain him until his anger is cooled; but he cannot strike 
  him in order to protect 'the party assailed, as he way in self-defence. 2 
  Roll. Abr. 359, E, pl. 3. 
       6. - 3. Watchmen may arrest, and detain in prison for examination, 
  persons walking in the streets by might, whom there is reasonable ground to 
  suspect of felony, although there is no proof of a felony having been 
  committed. 3 Taunt. 14. 
       7. - 4. Any person has a right to arrest another to prevent a felony. 
       8. - 5. Any one may arrest another upon suspicion of felony, provided a 
  felony has actually been committed and there is reasonable ground for 
  suspecting the person arrested to be the criminal, and that the party making 
  the arrest, himself entertained the suspicion. 
       9. - 6. Any private individual may arrest a felon. Hale's P. C. 89. 
      10. - 7. It is lawful for every man to lay hands on another to preserve 
  public decorum; as to turn him out of church, and to prevent him from 
  disturbing the congregation or a funeral ceremony. 1 Mod. 168; and see 1 
  Lev. 196; 2 Keb. 124. But a request to desist should be first made, unless 
  the urgent necessity of the case dispenses with it. 
      11. Secondly. A battery may be justified in the exercise of an office. 
  1. A constable may freshly arrest one who, in, his view, has committed a 
  breach of the peace, and carry him before a magistrate. But if an offence 
  has been committed out of the constable's sight, he cannot arrest, unless it 
  amounts to a felony; 1 Brownl. 198 or a felony is likely to ensue. Cro. 
  Eliz. 375. 
      12. - 2. A justice of the peace may generally do all acts which a 
  constable has authority to perform hence he may freshly arrest one who, in 
  his view has broken the peace; or he may order a constable at the moment to 
  take him up. Kielw. 41. 
      13. Thirdly. A battery may be justified under the process of a court of 
  justice, or of a magistrate having competent jurisdiction. See 16 Mass. 450; 
  13 Mass. 342. 
      14. Fourthly. A battery may be justified in aid of an authority in law. 
  Every person is empowered to restrain breaches of the peace, by virtue of 
  the authority vested in him by the law. 
      15. Lastly. A battery may be justified as a necessary means of defence. 
  1. Against the plaintiffs assaults in the following instances: In defence of 
  himself, his wife, 3 Salk. 46, his child, and his servant. Ow. 150; sed vide 
  1 Salk. 407. So, likewise, the wife may justify a battery in defending her 
  husband; Ld. Raym. 62; the child its parent; 3 Salk. 46; and the servant his 
  master. In these situations, the party need not wait until a blow has been 
  given, for then he might come too late, and be disabled from warding off a 
  second stroke, or from protecting the person assailed. Care, however, must 
  be taken, that the battery do not exceed the bounds of necessary defence and 
  protection; for it is only permitted as a means to avert an impending evil, 
  which might otherwise overwhelm the party, and not as a punishment or 
  retaliation for the injurious attempt. Str. 953. The degree of force 
  necessary to repel an assault will naturally depend upon, and be 
  proportioned to, the violence of the assailant; but with this limitation any 
  degree is justifiable. Ld. Raym. 177; 2 Salk. 642. 
      16. - 2. A battery may likewise be justified in the necessary defence of 
  one's property; if the plaintiff is in the act of entering peaceably upon 
  the defendant's land, or having entered, is discovered, not committing 
  violence, a request to depart is necessary in the first instance; 2 Salk. 
  641; and if the plaintiff refuses, the defendant may then, and not till 
  then, gently lay hands upon the plaintiff to remove him from the close and 
  for this purpose may use, if necessary, any degree of force short of 
  striking the plaintiff, as by thrusting him off. Skinn. 228. If the 
  plaintiff resists, the defendant may oppose force to force. 8 T. R. 78. But 
  if the plaintiff is in the act of forcibly entering upon the land, or having 
  entered, is discovered subverting the soil, cutting down a tree or the like, 
  2 Salk. 641, a previous request is unnecessary, and the defendant may 
  immediately lay hands upon the plaintiff. 8 T. R. 78. A man may justify a 
  battery in defence of his personal property, without a previous request, if 
  another forcibly attempt to take away such property. 2 Salk. 641. Vide 
  Rudeness; Wantonness. 
  
  

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