dictionar englez roman

challenge


9 dicționare găsite pentru challenge
Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Challenge \Chal"lenge\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Challenged; p. pr.
     & vb. n. Challenging.] [OE. chalengen to accuse, claim, OF.
     chalengier, chalongier, to claim, accuse, dispute, fr. L.
     calumniar to attack with false accusations. See Challenge,
     n., and cf. Calumniate.]
     1. To call to a contest of any kind; to call to answer; to
        defy.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              I challenge any man to make any pretense to power by
              right of fatherhood.                  --Locke.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. To call, invite, or summon to answer for an offense by
        personal combat.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              By this I challenge him to single fight. --Shak.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     3. To claim as due; to demand as a right.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              Challenge better terms.               --Addison.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     4. To censure; to blame. [Obs.]
        [1913 Webster]
  
              He complained of the emperors . . . and challenged
              them for that he had no greater revenues . . . from
              them.                                 --Holland.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     5. (Mil.) To question or demand the countersign from (one who
        attempts to pass the lines); as, the sentinel challenged
        us, with "Who comes there?"
        [1913 Webster]
  
     6. To take exception to; question; as, to challenge the
        accuracy of a statement or of a quotation.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     7. (Law) To object to or take exception to, as to a juror, or
        member of a court.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     8. To object to the reception of the vote of, as on the
        ground that the person in not qualified as a voter. [U.
        S.]
        [1913 Webster]
  
     To challenge to the array, favor, polls. See under
        Challenge, n.
        [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Challenge \Chal"lenge\, v. i.
     To assert a right; to claim a place.
     [1913 Webster]
  
           Where nature doth with merit challenge.  --Shak.
     [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Challenge \Chal"lenge\, n. [OE. chalenge claim, accusation,
     challenge, OF. chalenge, chalonge, claim, accusation,
     contest, fr. L. calumnia false accusation, chicanery. See
     Calumny.]
     1. An invitation to engage in a contest or controversy of any
        kind; a defiance; specifically, a summons to fight a duel;
        also, the letter or message conveying the summons.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              A challenge to controversy.           --Goldsmith.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. The act of a sentry in halting any one who appears at his
        post, and demanding the countersign.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     3. A claim or demand. [Obs.]
        [1913 Webster]
  
              There must be no challenge of superiority.
                                                    --Collier.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     4. (Hunting) The opening and crying of hounds at first
        finding the scent of their game.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     5. (Law) An exception to a juror or to a member of a court
        martial, coupled with a demand that he should be held
        incompetent to act; the claim of a party that a certain
        person or persons shall not sit in trial upon him or his
        cause. --Blackstone
        [1913 Webster]
  
     6. An exception to a person as not legally qualified to vote.
        The challenge must be made when the ballot is offered. [U.
        S.]
        [1913 Webster]
  
     Challenge to the array (Law), an exception to the whole
        panel.
  
     Challenge to the favor, the alleging a special cause, the
        sufficiency of which is to be left to those whose duty and
        office it is to decide upon it.
  
     Challenge to the polls, an exception taken to any one or
        more of the individual jurors returned.
  
     Peremptory challenge, a privilege sometimes allowed to
        defendants, of challenging a certain number of jurors
        (fixed by statute in different States) without assigning
        any cause.
  
     Principal challenge, that which the law allows to be
        sufficient if found to be true.
        [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul WordNet (r) 2.0 :

  challenge
       n 1: a demanding or stimulating situation; "they reacted
            irrationally to the challenge of Russian power"
       2: a call to engage in a contest or fight
       3: questioning a statement and demanding an explanation; "his
          challenge of the assumption that Japan is still our enemy"
       4: a formal objection to the selection of a particular person
          as a juror
       5: a demand by a sentry for a password or identification
       v 1: take exception to; "She challenged his claims" [syn: dispute,
             gainsay]
       2: issue a challenge to; "Fischer challenged Spassky to a
          match"
       3: ask for identification; "The illegal immigrant was
          challenged by the border guard"
       4: raise a formal objection in a court of law [syn: take
          exception]

Din dicționarul Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0 :

  328 Moby Thesaurus words for "challenge":
     Socratic method, affront, arouse, ask, ask for, asking, attack,
     awake a doubt, awaken, baffle, balk, banter, battle cry,
     be contrary to, be diffident, be doubtful, be dubious,
     be skeptical, be uncertain, beard, beef, belie, bestir,
     bid defiance, bid to combat, bitch, blackmail, blast, boggle,
     boycott, brave, breast, bring before, bring forward, bring up,
     bringing into question, bucking, call, call for, call in question,
     call into question, call out, calling, cartel, catechetical method,
     catechization, catechizing, challenge, checkmate, circumvent,
     claim, claiming, clamor for, combative reaction, compete,
     compete with, complain, complain loudly, complaint, compunction,
     confound, confront, confront with, confrontation, contend with,
     contention, contest, contradict, contradiction, contravention,
     contraversion, controvert, cope, counter, counteract,
     counteraction, countermand, counterwork, counterworking, cross,
     crosscurrent, crossing, cry for, cry out against, dare, dash,
     declaration of war, declare war, defeat, defi, defiance, defy,
     demand, demanding, demonstrate, demonstrate against, demonstration,
     demur, demurral, demurrer, denial, deny, destroy, difficulty,
     discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, dish, dispute, dissent,
     dissentience, distrust, double dare, double-dare, doubt, elude,
     emulate, encounter, enter a protest, envisage, exact, exacting,
     examination, exception, expostulate, expostulation, extort, face,
     face down, face out, face up to, face with, flummox, foil,
     fractiousness, front, frustrate, gage, gage of battle, gainsay,
     gauntlet, glove, greet with skepticism, grievance,
     grievance committee, half believe, harbor suspicions,
     have reservations, head wind, holler, howl, impose, impugn,
     impugnation, impugnment, indent, indignation meeting, inquiring,
     insistence, interpellation, interrogation, invitation, invite,
     issue an ultimatum, jockey, kick, kick against, kindle,
     knock the chocks, lay before, lay claim to, levy, levy war on,
     make a demand, make a stand, make war on, march, meet,
     meet head-on, meet squarely, misgive, mistrust, negate, negation,
     negativism, noncooperation, nonplus, nonviolent protest, object,
     object to, objection, obstinacy, offer resistance,
     open hostilities, oppose, opposing, opposition, opposure, oppugn,
     oppugnation, order, order up, outdare, outvie, passive resistance,
     perplex, picket, picketing, place an order, place before,
     postulate, present to, press objections, pretend to, probing,
     problem, protest, protest demonstration, protestation, provocation,
     provoke, pumping, put in requisition, put it to, qualm, query,
     querying, question, questioning, quiz, quizzing, raise a howl,
     raise a question, rally, reaction, rebel yell, rebuff, rebut,
     rebutment, rebuttal, recalcitrance, recalcitrancy, recalcitrate,
     recalcitration, refractoriness, refusal, reject, rejection, reluct,
     reluctance, remonstrance, remonstrate, remonstration, renitence,
     renitency, repellence, repellency, repulse, repulsion, require,
     requisition, resistance, revolt, rival, rouse, ruin, sabotage,
     scotch, scream defiance, screw, scruple, seeking, set before,
     show fight, sit in, sit-in, smell a rat, solicit, spike, spoil,
     squawk, stand, stand at bay, stand up against, stand up to,
     standing against, stare down, state a grievance, stem, stimulation,
     stir, stonewall, strike, strive, strive against, struggle, stump,
     summon, summons, suspect, take exception to, teach in, teach-in,
     test, test one another, throw doubt upon, thwart, traversal,
     traverse, treat with reserve, trial, try, ultimatum,
     uncooperativeness, undercurrent, upset, venture, vie, vie with,
     wake, waken, war cry, war whoop, warn, whet, withstand,
     withstanding, yell bloody murder  
     
Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  CHALLENGE, practice. An exception made to jurors who are to pass on a trial; 
  to a judge; or to a sheriff. 
       2. It will be proper here to consider, 1. the several kinds of 
  challenges; 2. by whom they are to be made; 3. the time and manner of making 
  them. 
       3.-1. The several kinds of challenges may be divided into those which 
  are peremptory, and those which are for cause. 1. Peremptory challenges are 
  those 'which are made without assigning any reason, and which the court must 
  allow. The number of these which the prisoner was allowed at common law, in 
  all cases of felony, was thirty-five, or one under three full juries. This 
  is regulated by the local statutes of the different states, and the number 
  except in capital cases, has been probably reduced. 
       4.-2. Challenges for cause are to the array or to the polls. 1. A 
  challenge to the array is made on account of some defect in making the 
  return to the venire, and is at once an objection to all the jurors in the 
  panel. It is either a principal challenge, that is, one founded on some 
  manifest partiality, or error committed in selecting, depositing, drawing or 
  summoning the jurors, by not pursuing the directions of the acts of the 
  legislature; or a challenge for favor. 
       5.-2. A challenge to the polls is objection made separately to each 
  juror as he is about to be sworn. Challenges to the polls, like those to the 
  array, are either principal or to the favor. 
       6. First, principal challenges may be made on various grounds: 1st. 
  propter defectum, on account of some personal objection, as alienage, 
  infancy, old age, or the want of those qualifications required by 
  legislative enactment. 2d. Propter affectum, because of some presumed or 
  actual partiality in the juryman who is made the subject of the objection; 
  on this ground a juror may be objected to, if he is related to either within 
  the ninth degree, or is so connected by affinity; this is supposed to bias 
  the juror's mind, and is only a presumption of partiality. Coxe, 446; 6 
  Greenl. 307; 3 Day, 491. A juror who has conscientious scruples in finding a 
  verdict in a capital case, may be challenged. 1 Bald. 78. Much stronger is 
  the reason for this challenge, where the juryman has expressed his wishes as 
  to the result of the trial, or his opinion of the guilt or innocence of the 
  defendant. 4 Harg. St. Tr. 748; Hawk. b. 2, c. 43, s. 28; Bac. Ab. Juries, E 
  5. And the smallest degree of interest in the matter to be tried is a 
  decisive objection against a juror. 1 Bay, 229; 8 S. & R. 444; 2 Tyler, 401. 
  But see 5 Mass. 90. 3d. The third ground of principal challenge to the 
  polls, is propter delictum, or the legal incompetency of the juror on the 
  ground of infamy. The court, when satisfied from their own examination, 
  decide as to the principal challenges to the polls, without any further 
  investigation and there is no occasion for the appointment of triers. Co. 
  Litt. 157, b; Bac. Ab. Juries, E 12; 8 Watts. R. 304. 
       7.-Secondly. Challenges to the poll for favor may be made, when, 
  although the juror is not so evidently partial that his supposed bias will 
  be sufficient to authorize. a principal challenge, yet there are reasonable 
  grounds to suspect that he will act under some undue influence or prejudice. 
  The causes for such challenge are manifestly very numerous, and depend, on a 
  variety of circumstances. The fact to be ascertained is, whether the juryman 
  is altogether indifferent as he stands unsworn, because, even unconsciously 
  to himself, be may be swayed to one side. The line which separates the 
  causes for principal challenges, and for challenge to the favor, is not very 
  distinctly marked. That the juror has acted as godfather to the child of the 
  prosecutor or defendant, is cause for a principal challenge; Co. Litt. 157, 
  a; while the fact that the party and the juryman are fellow servants, and 
  that the latter has been entertained at the house of the former, is only 
  cause for challenge to the favor. Co. Litt. 147; Bac. Ab. Juries, E 5. 
  Challenges to the favor are not decided upon by the court, but are settled 
  by triers. (q.v.) 
       8.-2. The challenges may be made by the government, or those who 
  represent it, or by the defendant, in criminal cases; or they may be made by 
  either party in civil cases. 
       9.-3. As to the time of making the challenge, it is to be observed 
  that it is a general rule, that no challenge can be made either to the array 
  or to the polls, until a full jury have made their appearance, because if 
  that should be the case, the issue will remain pro defectu juratorum; and on 
  this account, the party who intends to challenge the array, may, under such 
  a contingency, pray a tales to complete the number, and then object to the 
  panel. The proper time, of challenging, is between the appearance and the 
  swearing of the jurors. The order of making challenges is to the array 
  first, and should not that be supported, then to the polls; challenging any 
  one juror, waives the right of challenging the array. Co. Litt. 158, a; Bac. 
  Ab. Juries, E 11. The proper manner of making the challenge, is to state all 
  the objections against the jurors at one time; and the party will not be 
  allowed to make a second objection to the same juror, when the first has 
  been overruled. But when a juror has been challenged on one side, and found 
  indifferent, he may still be challenged on the other. When the juror has 
  been challenged for cause, and been pronounced impartial, he may still be 
  challenged peremptorily. 6 T. R. 531; 4 Bl. Com. 356; Hawk. b. 2, c. 46, s. 
  10. 
      10. As to the mode of making the challenge, the rule is, that a 
  challenge to the array must be in writing; but when it is only to a single 
  individual, the words "I challenge him" are sufficient in a civil case, or 
  on the part of the defendant, in a criminal case when the challenge is made 
  for the prosecution, the attorney-general says, "We challenge him." 4 Harg. 
  St. Tr. 740 Tr. per Pais, 172; and see Cro. C. 105; 2 Lil. Entr. 472; 10 
  Wentw. 474; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 533 to 551. 
      11. Interest forms the only ground at common law for challenging a 
  judge. It is no ground of challenge that he has given an opinion in the case 
  before. 4 Bin. 349; 2 Bin. 454. By statute, there are in some states several 
  other grounds of challenge. See Courts of the U. S., 633 64. 
      12. The sheriff may be challenged for favor as well as affinity. Co. 
  Litt. 158, a; 10 Serg. &. R. 336-7. And the challenge need not be made to 
  the court, but only to the prothonotary. Yet the Sheriff cannot be passed by 
  in the direction of process without cause, as he is the proper officer to 
  execute writs, except in case of partiality. Yet if process be directed to 
  the coroner without cause, it is not void. He cannot dispute the authority 
  of the court, but must execute it at his peril, and the misdirection is 
  aided by the statutes of amendment. 11 Serg. & R. 303. 
  
  

Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  CHALLENGE. This word has several significations. 1. It is an exception or 
  objection to a juror. 2. A call by one person upon another to a single 
  combat, which is said to be a challenge to fight. 
  
  

Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  CHALLENGE, criminal law. A request by one person to another, to fight a 
  duel. 
       2. It is a high offence at common law, and indictable, as tending to a 
  breach of the peace. It may be in writing or verbally. Vide Hawk. P. C. b. 
  1, c. 63, s. 3; 6 East, R. 464; 8 East, R. 581; 1 Dana, R. 524; 1 South.. R. 
  40; 3 Wheel. Cr. C. 245 3 Rogers' Rec. 133; 2 M'Cord, R. 334 1 Hawks. R. 
  487; 1 Const. R. 107. He who carries a challenge is also punishable by 
  indictment. In most of the states, this barbarous practice is punishable by 
  special laws. 
       3. In most of the civilized nations challenging another to fight. is a 
  crime, as calculated to destroy the public peace; and those who partake in 
  the offence are generally liable to punishment. In Spain it is punished by 
  loss of offices, rents, and horrors received from the king, and the 
  delinquent is incapable to hold them in future. Aso & Man. Inst. B. 2, t. 
  19, c. 2, Sec. 6. See, generally, 6 J. J. Marsh. 120; 1 Munf. 468; 1 Russ. 
  on Cr. 275; 6 J. J. Marsh. 1 19; Coust. Rep. 10 7; Joy on Chal. passim. 
  
  

Din dicționarul U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Challenge-Brownsville, CA -- U.S. Census Designated Place in California
     Population (2000):    1069
     Housing Units (2000): 580
     Land area (2000):     9.664709 sq. miles (25.031480 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    9.664709 sq. miles (25.031480 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            12612
     Located within:       California (CA), FIPS 06
     Location:             39.472574 N, 121.265028 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):    
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
     Headwords:
      Challenge-Brownsville, CA
      Challenge-Brownsville
      Challenge, CA
      Challenge
  

Caută challenge cu Omnilexica

Produse referitoare la "challenge"

Contact | Noutăți | Unelte gratuite

Acest site este bazat pe Lexica © 2004-2020 Lucian Velea

www.ro-en.ro trafic.ro

 
Poți promova cultura română în lume: Intră pe www.intercogito.ro și distribuie o cugetare românească într-o altă limbă!