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contribution


5 dicționare găsite pentru contribution
Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Contribution \Con`tri*bu"tion\, n. [L. contributio: cf. F.
     contribution.]
     1. The act of contributing.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. That which is contributed; -- either the portion which an
        individual furnishes to the common stock, or the whole
        which is formed by the gifts of individuals.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              A certain contribution for the poor saints which are
              at jerusalem.                         --Rom. xv. 26.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              Aristotle's actual contributions to the physical
              sciences.                             --Whewell.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     3. (Mil.) An irregular and arbitrary imposition or tax leved
        on the people of a town or country.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              These sums, . . . and the forced contributions paid
              by luckless peasants, enabled him to keep his
              straggling troops together.           --Motley.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     4. (Law) Payment, by each of several jointly liable, of a
        share in a loss suffered or an amount paid by one of their
        number for the common benefit.
        [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul WordNet (r) 2.0 :

  contribution
       n 1: any one of a number of individual efforts in a common
            endeavor; "I am proud of my contribution to the team's
            success"; "they all did their share of the work" [syn: part,
             share]
       2: a voluntary gift (as of money or service or ideas) made to
          some worthwhile cause [syn: donation]
       3: act of giving in common with others for a common purpose
          especially to a charity [syn: donation]
       4: an amount of money contributed; "he expected his
          contribution to be repaid with interest"
       5: a writing for publication especially one of a collection of
          writings as an article or story

Din dicționarul Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0 :

  120 Moby Thesaurus words for "contribution":
     accommodation, accordance, alms, alms fee, assessment, association,
     award, awarding, benefaction, beneficence, bestowal, bestowment,
     blackmail, call, call for, cess, chanty, charity, claim,
     cochairmanship, collection, communication, complicity, concession,
     condominium, conferment, conferral, conscience money,
     copartnership, copartnery, cotenancy, deliverance, delivery,
     demand, demand for, direct tax, dole, donation, donative, draft,
     drain, duty, endowment, engagement, exaction, extortion,
     extortionate demand, furnishment, gifting, giving,
     graduated taxation, grant, granting, handout, having a part,
     heavy demand, impartation, impartment, imposition, impost, indent,
     indirect tax, insistent demand, investiture, involvement,
     joint chairmanship, joint control, joint ownership, joint return,
     joint tenancy, levy, liberality, nonnegotiable demand, notice,
     offer, offering, offertory, order, partaking, participation,
     partnership, pittance, presentation, presentment, progressive tax,
     provision, requirement, requisition, rush, rush order,
     separate returns, sharing, single tax, subscription, suffrage,
     supertax, supplying, surrender, surtax, tax, tax base, tax dodging,
     tax evasion, tax exemption, tax return, tax structure,
     tax withholding, tax-exempt status, taxable income, taxation,
     taxing, tithe, toll, tribute, ultimatum, voting, votive offering,
     vouchsafement, warning, withholding tax  
     
Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  CONTRIBUTION, civil law. A partition by which the creditors of an insolvent 
  debtor divide, among themselves the proceeds of his property, proportionably 
  to the amount of their respective credits. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 2522, n. 
  10. It is a division pro rata. Merl. Rep. h.t. 
  
  

Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  CONTRIBUTION, contracts. When two or more persons jointly owe a debt, and 
  one is compelled to pay the whole of it, the others are bound to indemnify 
  him for the payment of their shares; this indemnity is called a 
  contribution. 1 Bibb. R. 562; 4 John. Ch. R. 545; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3935-6. 
       2. The subject will be considered by taking a view, 1. Of right of the 
  creditors where there are several debtors. 2. Of the right of the debtor who 
  pays the whole debt. 3. Of the liabilities of the debtors who are liable to 
  contribution. 4. Of the liability of land owned by several owners, when it 
  is subject to a charge. 5. Of the liability of owners of goods in a vessel, 
  when part is thrown overboard to save the rest. 
       3.-1. The creditor of several debtors, jointly bound to him, has a 
  right to compel the payment by any he may choose; but he cannot sue them 
  severally, unless they are severally bound. 
       4.-2. When one of several debtors pays a debt, the creditor is bound 
  in conscience, if not by contract, to give to the party paying the debt all 
  his remedies against the other debtors. 1 Cox, R. 318 S. C. 2 B. & P. 270 2 
  Swanst. R. 189, 192; 3 Bligh, 59 14 Ves. 160; 1 Ves. 31 12 Wheat. 596 1 
  Hill, Ch. R. 844, 351 1 Term. St. It. 512, 517; 1 Ala. R. 23, 28; 11 Ohio 
  It. 444, 449 8 Misso. It. 169, 175. 
       5.- 3. A debtor liable to contribution is not responsible upon a 
  contract, but is so in equity. But courts of common law, in modern times, 
  have assumed a jurisdiction to compel contribution among sureties, in the 
  absence of any positive contract, on the ground of an implied assumpsit, and 
  each of the sureties may be sued for his respective quota or proportion. 
  White's L. C. in Eq. 66. The remedy in equity is, however, much more 
  effective. For example, a surety who pays an entire debt, can, in equity, 
  compel the solvent sureties to contribute towards the payment of the entire 
  debt. 1 Chan. R. 34 1 Chan. Cas. 246; Finch, R. 15, 203. But at law he can 
  recover no more than an aliquot part of the whole, regard being had to the 
  number of co-sureties. 2 B. & P. 268; 6 B. & C. 697. 
       6.-4. When land is charged with the payment of a legacy, or an estate 
  with the portion of a posthumous child, every part is bound to make 
  contribution. 3 Munf. R. 29; 1 John. Ch. R. 425 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1301. 
       7.-5. Contribution takes place in another case; namely, when in order 
  to save a ship or cargo, a part of the goods are cast overboard, the ship 
  and cargo are liable to contribution in order to indemnify the owner of the 
  goods lost, except his just proportion. No contribution can be claimed 
  between joint wrong doers. Bac. Ab. Assumpsit A; Vide 3 Com. Dig. 143; 8 
  Com. Dig. 373; 5 Vin. Ab. 561; 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. 159, 343; 3 Ves. jr. 64; 
  Wesk. Ins. 130; 10 S. & R. 75; 5 B. & Ad. 936; S. C. 3 N. & M. 258; Rast. 
  Entr. 161; 2 Ventr. 348; 2 Vern. 592; 2 B. & P. 268; 3 B. & P 235; 5 East, 
  225; 1 J. P. Smith 411 5 Esp. 194; 3 Campb. 480; Gow, N. P. C. 13; 2 A. & E. 
  57; 4 N. & M. 64; 6 N. & M. 494. 
  
  

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