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judge


7 dicționare găsite pentru judge
Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Judge \Judge\ (j[u^]j), n. [OE. juge, OF. & F. juge, fr. OF.
     jugier, F. juger, to judge. See Judge, v. i.]
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     1. (Law) A public officer who is invested with authority to
        hear and determine litigated causes, and to administer
        justice between parties in courts held for that purpose.
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              The parts of a judge in hearing are four: to direct
              the evidence; to moderate length, repetition, or
              impertinency of speech; to recapitulate, select, and
              collate the material points of that which hath been
              said; and to give the rule or sentence. --Bacon.
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     2. One who has skill, knowledge, or experience, sufficient to
        decide on the merits of a question, or on the quality or
        value of anything; one who discerns properties or
        relations with skill and readiness; a connoisseur; an
        expert; a critic.
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              A man who is no judge of law may be a good judge of
              poetry, or eloquence, or of the merits of a
              painting.                             --Dryden.
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     3. A person appointed to decide in a trial of skill, speed,
        etc., between two or more parties; an umpire; as, a judge
        in a horse race.
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     4. (Jewish Hist.) One of the supreme magistrates, with both
        civil and military powers, who governed Israel for more
        than four hundred years.
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     5. pl. The title of the seventh book of the Old Testament;
        the Book of Judges.
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     Judge Advocate (Mil. & Nav.), a person appointed to act as
        prosecutor at a court-martial; he acts as the
        representative of the government, as the responsible
        adviser of the court, and also, to a certain extent, as
        counsel for the accused, when he has no other counsel.
  
     Judge-Advocate General, in the United States, the title of
        two officers, one attached to the War Department and
        having the rank of brigadier general, the other attached
        to the Navy Department and having the rank of colonel of
        marines or captain in the navy. The first is chief of the
        Bureau of Military Justice of the army, the other performs
        a similar duty for the navy. In England, the designation
        of a member of the ministry who is the legal adviser of
        the secretary of state for war, and supreme judge of the
        proceedings of courts-martial.
  
     Syn: Judge, Umpire, Arbitrator, Referee.
  
     Usage: A judge, in the legal sense, is a magistrate appointed
            to determine questions of law. An umpire is a person
            selected to decide between two or more who contend for
            a prize. An arbitrator is one chosen to allot to two
            contestants their portion of a claim, usually on
            grounds of equity and common sense. A referee is one
            to whom a case is referred for final adjustment.
            Arbitrations and references are sometimes voluntary,
            sometimes appointed by a court.
            [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Judge \Judge\, v. t.
     1. To hear and determine by authority, as a case before a
        court, or a controversy between two parties. "Chaos
        [shall] judge the strife." --Milton.
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     2. To examine and pass sentence on; to try; to doom.
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              God shall judge the righteous and the wicked.
                                                    --Eccl. iii.
                                                    7.
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              To bring my whole cause 'fore his holiness,
              And to be judged by him.              --Shak.
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     3. To arrogate judicial authority over; to sit in judgment
        upon; to be censorious toward.
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              Judge not, that ye be not judged.     --Matt. vii.
                                                    1.
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     4. To determine upon or deliberation; to esteem; to think; to
        reckon.
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              If ye have judged me to be faithful to the Lord.
                                                    --Acts xvi.
                                                    15.
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     5. To exercise the functions of a magistrate over; to govern.
        [Obs.]
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              Make us a king to judge us.           --1 Sam. viii.
                                                    5.
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Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Judge \Judge\, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Judged (j[u^]jd); p. pr. &
     vb. n. Judging.] [OE. jugen, OF. jugier, F. juger, L.
     judicare, fr. judex judge; jus law or right + dicare to
     proclaim, pronounce, akin to dicere to say. See Just, a.,
     and Diction, and cf. Judicial.]
     [1913 Webster]
     1. To hear and determine, as in causes on trial; to decide as
        a judge; to give judgment; to pass sentence.
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              The Lord judge between thee and me.   --Gen. xvi. 5.
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              Father, who art judge
              Of all things made, and judgest only right!
                                                    --Milton.
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     2. To assume the right to pass judgment on another; to sit in
        judgment or commendation; to criticise or pass adverse
        judgment upon others. See Judge, v. t., 3.
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              Forbear to judge, for we are sinners all. --Shak.
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     3. To compare facts or ideas, and perceive their relations
        and attributes, and thus distinguish truth from falsehood;
        to determine; to discern; to distinguish; to form an
        opinion about.
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              Judge not according to the appearance. --John vii.
                                                    24.
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              She is wise if I can judge of her.    --Shak.
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Din dicționarul WordNet (r) 2.0 :

  judge
       n 1: a public official authorized to decide questions bought
            before a court of justice [syn: justice, jurist, magistrate]
       2: an authority who is able to estimate worth or quality [syn:
          evaluator]
       v 1: determine the result of (a competition)
       2: form an opinion of or pass judgment on; "I cannot judge some
          works of modern art"
       3: judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or
          time); "I estimate this chicken to weigh three pounds"
          [syn: estimate, gauge, approximate, guess]
       4: pronounce judgment on; "They labeled him unfit to work here"
          [syn: pronounce, label]
       5: put on trial or hear a case and sit as the judge at the
          trial of; "The football star was tried for the murder of
          his wife"; "The judge tried both father and son in
          separate trials" [syn: adjudicate, try]

Din dicționarul Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0 :

  160 Moby Thesaurus words for "judge":
     account, account as, act between, adjudge, adjudicate, adjudicator,
     administer, administer justice, administrate, allow, amateur,
     appraise, appraiser, appreciate, approximate, arbiter,
     arbiter elegantiarum, arbiter of taste, arbitrate, arbitrator,
     assess, assume, authority, bargain, be afraid, be judicious, beak,
     believe, bon vivant, call, charge the jury, check, cognoscente,
     collect, collector, conceive, conciliator, conclude,
     conduct a trial, conjecture, connaisseur, connoisseur, consider,
     count, court, critic, daresay, decide, decree, deduce, deduct,
     deem, deemster, demonstrate, dempster, derive, determine,
     dilettante, draw, epicure, epicurean, esteem, estimate, evaluate,
     evaluator, exercise judgment, expect, expert, express an opinion,
     fancy, find, form an opinion, gather, go between, good judge,
     gourmand, gourmet, guess, have a hunch, have an idea,
     have an impression, have an inkling, have the idea, hear, hold,
     hold as, imagine, impartial arbitrator, infer, intercede,
     intermediary, intermediate, interpose, intervene, judger,
     judicator, jurist, justice, look upon as, magistrate, maintain,
     make, make out, make terms, maven, measure, mediate, mediator,
     meet halfway, moderate, moderator, negotiate, negotiator, opine,
     pass sentence, peacemaker, pine, place, preside, presume,
     pronounce sentence, prove, put, rate, reckon, reconciler, referee,
     refined palate, regard, represent, review, reviewer, rule,
     set down as, settle, show, sit in judgment, size up, step in,
     suppose, surmise, suspect, take, take for, take it, test, think,
     think of, third party, treat with, trow, try, try a case, umpire,
     unbiased observer, value, view as, virtuoso, ween, weigh  
     
Din dicționarul Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary :

  Judge
     (Heb. shophet, pl. shophetim), properly a magistrate or ruler,
     rather than one who judges in the sense of trying a cause. This
     is the name given to those rulers who presided over the affairs
     of the Israelites during the interval between the death of
     Joshua and the accession of Saul (Judg. 2:18), a period of
     general anarchy and confusion. "The office of judges or regents
     was held during life, but it was not hereditary, neither could
     they appoint their successors. Their authority was limited by
     the law alone, and in doubtful cases they were directed to
     consult the divine King through the priest by Urim and Thummim
     (Num. 27:21). Their authority extended only over those tribes by
     whom they had been elected or acknowledged. There was no income
     attached to their office, and they bore no external marks of
     dignity. The only cases of direct divine appointment are those
     of Gideon and Samson, and the latter stood in the peculiar
     position of having been from before his birth ordained 'to begin
     to deliver Israel.' Deborah was called to deliver Israel, but
     was already a judge. Samuel was called by the Lord to be a
     prophet but not a judge, which ensued from the high gifts the
     people recognized as dwelling in him; and as to Eli, the office
     of judge seems to have devolved naturally or rather ex officio
     upon him." Of five of the judges, Tola (Judg. 10:1), Jair (3),
     Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon (12:8-15), we have no record at all
     beyond the bare fact that they were judges. Sacred history is
     not the history of individuals but of the kingdom of God in its
     onward progress.
     
       In Ex. 2:14 Moses is so styled. This fact may indicate that
     while for revenue purposes the "taskmasters" were over the
     people, they were yet, just as at a later time when under the
     Romans, governed by their own rulers.
     

Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  JUDGE. A public officer, lawfully appointed to decide litigated questions 
  according to law. This, in its most extensive sense, includes all officers 
  who are appointed to decide such questions, and not only judges properly so 
  called, but also justices of the peace, and jurors, who are judges of the 
  facts in issue. See 4 Dall. 229; 3 Yeates, IR. 300. In a more limited sense, 
  the term judge signifies an officer who is so named in his commission, and 
  who presides in some court. 
       2. Judges are appointed or elected, in a variety of ways, in the United 
  States they are appointed by the president, by and with the consent of the 
  senate; in some of the states they are appointed by the governor, the 
  governor and senate, or by the legislature. In the United States, and some 
  of the states, they hold their offices during good behaviour; in others, as 
  in New York, during, good behaviour, or until they shall attain a certain 
  age and in others for a limited term of years. 
       3. Impartiality is the first duty of a judge; before he gives an 
  opinion, or sits in judgment in a cause, he ought to be certain that he has 
  no bias for or against either of the parties; and if he has any (the 
  slightest) interest in the cause, he is disqualified from sitting as judge; 
  aliquis non debet esse judex in propria causa; 8 Co. 118; 21 Pick. Rep. 101; 
  5 Mass. 92; 13 Mass. 340; 6 Pick. R. 109; 14 S. & R. 157-8; and when he is 
  aware of such interest, he ought himself to refuse to sit on the case. It 
  seems it is discretionary with him whether he will sit in a cause in which 
  he has been of counsel. 2 Marsh. 517; Coxe, 164; see 2 Binn. 454. But the 
  delicacy which characterizes the judges in this country, generally, forbids 
  their sitting in such a cause. 
       4. He must not only be impartial, but he must follow and enforce the 
  law, whether good or bad. He is bound to declare what the law is, and not 
  to make it; he is not an arbitrator, but an interpreter of the law. It is 
  his duty to be patient in the investigation of the case, careful in 
  considering it, and firm in his judgment. He ought, according to Cicero, 
  "never to lose sight that he is a man, and that he cannot exceed the power 
  given him by his commission; that not only power, but public confidence has 
  been given to him; that he ought always seriously to attend not to his 
  wishes but to the requisitions of law, of justice and religion." Cic. pro. 
  Cluentius. A curious case of judicial casuistry is stated by Aulus Gellius 
  Att. Noct. lib: 14, cap. 2, which may be interesting to the reader. 
       5. While acting within the bounds of his jurisdiction, the judge is hot 
  responsible for any error of judgment, nor mistake he may commit as a judge. 
  Co. Litt. 294; 2 Inst. 422; 2 Dall. R. 160; 1 Yeates, R. 443; N. & M'C. 168; 
  1 Day, R. 315; 1 Root, R. 211; 3 Caines, R. 170; 5 John. R. 282; 9 John. R. 
  395; 11 John. R. 150; 3 Marsh. R. 76; 1 South. R. 74; 1 N. H. Rep. 374; 2 
  Bay, 1, 69; 8 Wend. 468; 3 Marsh. R. 76,. When he acts corruptly, he may be 
  impeached. 5 John. R. 282; 8 Cowen, R. 178; 4 Dall. R. 225. 
       6. A judge is not competent as a witness in a cause trying before him, 
  for this, among other reasons, that he can hardly be deemed capable of 
  impartially deciding on the admissibility of his own testimony, or of 
  weighing. it against that of another.  Martin's R. N. S. 312. Vide, Com. 
  Dig. Courts, B 4, C 2, E 1, P 16 justices, 1 1, 2, and 3; 14 Vin. Ab. 573; 
  Bac. Ab. Courts, &c., B; 1 Kent, Com. 291; Ayl. Parerg. 309; Story, Const. 
  Index, h.t. See U. S. Dig. Courts, I, where will be found an abstract of 
  various decisions relating to the appointment and powers of judges in 
  different states. Vide Equality; Incompetency.; 
  
  

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