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maxim


4 dicționare găsite pentru maxim
Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Maxim \Max"im\, n. [F. maxime, L. maxima (sc. sententia), the
     greatest sentence, proposition, or axiom, i. e., of the
     greatest weight or authority, fem. fr. maximus greatest,
     superl. of magnus great. See Magnitude, and cf. Maximum.]
     [1913 Webster]
     1. An established principle or proposition; a condensed
        proposition of important practical truth; an axiom of
        practical wisdom; an adage; a proverb; an aphorism.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              'T is their maxim, Love is love's reward. --Dryden.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. (Mus.) The longest note formerly used, equal to two longs,
        or four breves; a large.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     Syn: Axiom; aphorism; apothegm; adage; proverb; saying. See
          Axiom.
          [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul WordNet (r) 2.0 :

  maxim
       n 1: a saying that widely accepted on its own merits [syn: axiom]
       2: English inventor (born in the United States) who invented
          the Maxim gun that was used in World War I (1840-1916)
          [syn: Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim]

Din dicționarul Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0 :

  68 Moby Thesaurus words for "maxim":
     Procrustean law, a belief, adage, aphorism, apophthegm, apothegm,
     article of faith, axiom, brocard, byword, canon, cliche, code,
     commandment, commonplace, convention, criterion, dictum, doctrine,
     dogma, epigram, form, formality, formula, formulary,
     general principle, gnome, golden rule, guideline,
     guiding principle, imperative, law, law of nature, mitzvah, moral,
     mot, motto, norm, norma, order of nature, ordinance, platitude,
     precept, prescribed form, prescript, prescription, principium,
     principle, proverb, regulation, rubric, rule, rule of thumb, saw,
     saying, set form, settled principle, slogan, standard,
     standing order, teaching, tenet, theorem, truism, universal law,
     witticism, working principle, working rule  
     
Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  MAXIM. An established principle or proposition. A principle of law 
  universally admitted, as being just and consonant With reason. 
       2. Maxims in law are somewhat like axioms in geometry. 1 Bl. Com. 68. 
  They are principles and authorities, and part of the general customs or 
  common law of the land; and are of the same strength as acts of parliament, 
  when the judges have determined what is a maxim; which belongs to the judges 
  and not the jury. Terms do Ley; Doct. & Stud. Dial. 1, c. 8. Maxims of the 
  law are holden for law, and all other cases that may be applied to them 
  shall be taken for granted. 1 Inst. 11. 67; 4 Rep. See 1 Com. c. 68; Plowd. 
  27, b. 
       3. The application of the maxim to the case before the court, is 
  generally the only difficulty. The true method of making the application is 
  to ascertain bow the maxim arose, and to consider whether the case to which 
  it is applied is of the same character, or whether it is an exception to an 
  apparently general rule. 
       4. The alterations of any of the maxims of the common law are 
  dangerous. 2 Inst. 210. The following are some of the more important maxims. 
  ----------------------------------------
  A communi observantia non est recedendum. There should be no departure from 
     common observance or usage. Co. Litt. 186. 
  A l'impossible nul n'est tenu. No one is bound to do what is impossible. 1 
     Bouv. Inst. n. 601. 
  A verbis legis non est recedendum. From the words of the law there must be 
     no departure. Broom's Max. 268; 5 Rep. 119; Wing. Max. 25. 
  Absentia ejus qui republicae causa abest, neque ei, neque alii damnosa esse 
     debet. The absence of him who is employed in the service of the state, 
     ought not to be burdensome to him nor to others. Dig. 50, 17, 140. 
  Absoluta sentetia expositore non indiget. An absolute unqualified sentence 
     or proposition, needs no expositor. 2 Co. Inst. 533. 
  Abundans cautela non nocet. Abundant caution does no harm. 11 Co. 6. 
  Accessorius sequit naturam sui principalis. An accessary follows the nature 
     of his principal. 3 Co. Inst. 349. 
  Accessorium non ducit sed sequitur suum principale. The accessory does not 
     lead, but follow its principal. Co. Litt. 152. 
  Accusare nemo debet se, nisi coram Deo. No one ought to accuse himself, 
     unless before God. Hard. 139. 
  Actio exteriora indicant interiora secreta. External actions show internal 
     secrets. 8 Co. R. 146. 
  Actio non datur non damnificato. An action is not given to him who has 
     received no damages. 
  Actio personalis moritur cum persona. A personal action dies with the 
     person. This must be understood of an action for a tort only. 
  Actor qui contra regulam quid adduxit, non est audiendus. He ought not to be 
     heard who advances a proposition contrary to the rules of law. 
  Actor sequitur forum rei. The plaintiff must follow the forum of the thing 
     in dispute. 
  Actore non probante reus absolvitur. When the plaintiff does not prove his 
     case, the defendant is absolved. 
  Actus Dei nemini facit injuriam. The act of God does no injury; that is, no 
     one is responsible for inevitable accidents. 2 Blacks. Com. 122. See Act 
     of God. 
  Actus incaeptus cujus perfectio pendet, ex voluntate partium, revocari 
     potest; si autem pendet ex voluntate tertia personae, vel ex contingenti, 
     revocari non potest. An act already begun, the completion of which 
     depends upon the will of the parties, may be recalled; but if it depend 
     on the consent of a third person, or of a contingency, it cannot be 
     recalled. Bacon's Max. Reg. 20. 
  Actus me invito factus, non est meus actus. An act done by me against my 
     will, is not my act. 
  Actus non reum facit, nisi mens sit rea. An act does not make a person 
     guilty, unless the intention be also guilty. This maxim applies only to 
     criminal cases; in civil matters it is otherwise. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2211. 
  Actus legitimi non recipiunt modum. Acts required by law to be done, admit 
     of no qualification. Hob. 153. 
  Actus legis nemini facit injuriam, The act of the law does no one an injury. 
     5 Co. 116. 
  Ad proximum antecedens fiat relatio, nisi impediatur sententia. The 
     antecedent bears relation to what follows next, unless it destroys the 
     meaning of the sentence. 
  Ad quaestiones facti non respondent judices; ad quaestione legis non 
     respondent juratores. The judges do not answer to questions of fact; the 
     jury do not answer to questions of law. Co. Litt. 295. 
  Aestimatio praeteriti delicti ex postremo facto nunquam crescit. The 
     estimation of a crime committed never increased from a subsequent fact. 
     Bac. Max. Reg. 8. 
  Ambiguitas verborum latens verificatione suppletur; nam quod exfacto oritur 
     ambiguum verificatione facti tollitur. A hidden ambiguity of the words is 
     supplied by the verification, for whatever ambiguity arises concerning 
     the deed itself is removed by the verification of the deed. Bacon's Max. 
     Reg. 23. 
  Aqua cedit solo. The water yields or accompanies the soil. The grant of the 
     soil or land carries the water. 
  Aqua curit et debet currere. Water runs and ought to run. 3 Rawle, 84, 88. 
  Aequitas agit in personam. Equity acts upon the person. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 
     3733. 
  Aequilas sequitier legem. Equity follows the law. 1 Story, Eq. Jur. Sec. 
     64.; 3 Woodes. Lect. 479, 482. 
  Aequum et bonum, est lex legum. What is good and equal, is the law of laws. 
     Hob. 224. 
  Affirmati, non neganti incumbit probatio. The proof lies upon him who 
     affirms, not on him who denies. 
  Aliud est celare, aliud tacere. To conceal is one thing, to be silent 
     another. 
  Alternatica petitio non est audienda. An alternate petition is not to be 
     heard. 5 Co. 40. 
  Animus ad se omne jus ducit. It isto the intention that all law applies. 
  Animus moninis est anima scripti. The intention of the party is the soul of 
     the instrument. 3 Bulstr. 67. 
  Apices juris non sunt jura. Points of law are not laws. Co. Litt. 304; 3 
     Scott, N. P. R. 773. 
  Arbitrium est judicium. An award is a judgment. Jenk Cent. 137. 
  Argumentum a majori ad minus negative non valet; valet e converso. An 
     argument from the greater to the less is of no force negatively; 
     conversely it is. Jenk. Cent. 281. 
  Argumentum a divisione est fortissimum in jure. An argument arising from a 
     division is most powerful in law. 6 Co. 60. 
  Argumentum ab inconvenienti est validum in lege; quia lex non permittit 
     aliquod inconveniens. An argument drawn from what is inconvenient is good 
     in law, because the law will not permit any inconvenience. Co. Litt. 258. 
  Argumentum ab impossibili plurmum valet in lege. An argument deduced from 
     authority great avails in law. Co. Litt. 92. 
  Argumentum ab authoritate est fortissimum in lege. An argument drawn from 
     authority is the strongest in law. Co. Litt. 254. 
  Argumentum a simili valet in lege. An argument drawn from a similar case, or 
     analogy, avails in law. Co. Litt. 191. 
  Augupia verforum sunt judice indigna. A twisting of language is unworthy of 
     a judge. Hob. 343. 
  Bona fides non patitur, ut bis idem exigatur. Natural equity or good faith 
     do no allow us to demand twice the payment of the same thing. Dig. 50, 
     17, 57. 
  Boni judicis est ampliare jurisdictionem. It is the part of a good judge to 
     enlarge his jurisdiction; that, his remedial authority. Chan. Prec. 329; 
     1 Wils 284; 9 M. & Wels. 818. 
  Boni judicis est causas litium derimere. It is the duty of a good judge to 
     remove the cause of litigation. 2 Co. Inst. 304. 
  Bonum defendentis ex integra causa, malum ex quolibet defectu. The good of a 
     defendant arises from a perfect case, his harm from some defect. 11 Co. 
     68. 
  Bonum judex secundum aequum et bonum judicat, et aequitatem stricto juri 
     praefert. A good judge decides according to justice and right, and 
     prefers equity to strict law. Co. Litt. 24. 
  Bonum necessarium extra terminos necessitatis non est bonum. Necessary good 
     is not good beyond the bounds of necessity. Hob. 144. 
  Casus fortuitus non est sperandus, et nemo tenetur devinare. A fortuitous 
     event is not to be foreseen, and no person is held bound to divine it. 4 
     Co. 66. 
  Casus omissus et oblivione datus dispositioni communis juris relinquitur. A 
     case omitted and given to oblivion is left to the disposal of the common 
     law. 5 Co. 37. 
  Catalla juste possessa amitti non possunt. Chattels justly possessed cannot 
     be lost. Jenk. Cent. 28. 
  Catalla repuntantur inter minima in lege. Chattels are considered in law 
     among the minor things. Jenk Cent. 52. 
  Causa proxima, non remota spectatur. The immediate, and not the remote 
     cause, is to be considered. Bac. Max. Reg. 1. 
  Caveat emptor. Let the purchaser beware. 
  Cavendum est a fragmentis. Beware of fragments. Bacon, Aph. 26. 
  Cessante causa, cessat effectus. The cause ceasing, the effect must cease. 
  C'est le crime qui fait la honte, et non pas l'echafaud. It is the crime 
     which causes the shame, and not the scaffold. 
  Charta de non ente non valet. A charter or deed of a thing not in being, is 
     not valid. Co. Litt. 36. 
  Chirographum apud debitorem repertum praesumitur solutum. A deed or bond 
     found with the debtor is presumed to be paid. 
  Circuitus est evitandus. Circuity is to be avoided. 5 Co. 31. 
  Clausula inconsuetae semper indicunt suspicionem. Unusual clauses always 
     induce a suspicion. 3 Co. 81. 
  Clausula quae abrogationem excludit ab initio non valet. A clause in a law 
     which precludes its abrogation, is invalid from the beginning. Bacon's 
     Max. Reg. 19, p. 89. 
  Clausula vel dispositio inutilis per praesumptionem remotam vel causam, ex 
     post facto non fulcitur. A useless clause or disposition is not supported 
     by a remote presumption, or by a cause arising afterwards. Bacon's Max. 
     Reg. 21. 
  Cogitationis poenam nemo patitur. No one is punished for merely thinking of 
     a crime. 
  Commodum ex injuria sua non habere debet. No man ought to derive any benefit 
     of his own wrong. Jenk. Cent. 161. 
  Communis error facit jus. A common error makes law. What was at first 
     illegal, being repeated many times, is presumed to have acquired the 
     force of usage, and then it would be wrong to depart from it. The 
     converse of this maxim is communis error no facit just. A common error 
     does not make law. 
  Confessio facta in judicio omni probatione major est. A confession made in 
     court is of greater effect than any proof. Jenk. 
  Cent. 102; 11 Co. 30. 
  Confirmare nemo potest priusquam just ei acciderit. No one can confirm 
     before the right accrues to him. 10 Co. 48. 
  Confirmatio est nulla, ubi donum praecedens est invalidum. A confirmation is 
     null where the preceding gift is invalid. Co. Litt. 295. 
  Conjunctio mariti et faeminae est de jure naturae. The union of a man and a 
     woman is of the law of nature. 
  Consensus non concubitus facit nuptiam. Consent, not lying together, 
     constitutes marriage. 
  Consensus facit legem. Consent makes the law. A contract is a law between 
     the parties, which can acquire force only by consent. 
  Consensus tollit errorem. Consent removes or obviates a mistake. 
  Co. Litt. 126. 
  Consentientes et agentes pari poena plectentur. Those consenting and those 
     perpetrating are embraced in the same punishment. 5 Co. 80. 
  Consequentiae non est consequentia. A consequence ought not to be drawn from 
     another consequence. Bacon, De Aug. Sci. Aph. 16. 
  Consilii, non fraudulenti, nulla est obligatio. Advice, unless fraudulent, 
     does not create an obligation. 
  Constructio contra rationem introducta, potius usurpatio quam consuetudo 
     appellari debet. A custom introduced against reason ought rather to be 
     called an usurpation than a custom. Co. Litt. 113. 
  Construction legis non facit injuriam. The construction of law works not an 
     injury. Co. Litt. 183; Broom's Max. 259. 
  Consuetudo debet esse certa. A custom ought to be certain. Dav. 33. 
  Consuetudo est optimus interpres legum. Custome is the best expounder of the 
     law. 2 Co. Inst. 18; Dig. 1, 3, 37; Jenk. Cent. 273. 
  Consuetudo est altera lex. Custom is another law. 4 Co. 21. 
  Consuetudo loci observanda est. The custom of the place is to be observed. 6 
     Co. 67. 
  Consuetudo praescripta et legitima vincit legem. A prescriptive and 
     legitimate custom overcomes the law. Co. Litt. 113. 
  Consuetudo semel reprobata non potest amplius induci. Custom once disallowed 
     cannot again be produced. Dav. 33. 
  Consuetudo voluntis ducit, lex nolentes trahit. Custom leads the willing, 
     law, law compels or draws the unwilling. Jenk. Cent. 274. 
  Contestio litis eget terminos contradictaris. An issue requires terms of 
     contradiction; that is, there can be no issue without an affirmative on 
     one side and a negative on the other. 
  Contemporanea expositio est optima et fortissima in lege. A contemporaneous 
     exposition is the best and most powerful in the law. 2 Co. Inst. 11. 
  Contra negantem principia non est disputandum. There is no disputing against 
     or denying principles. Co. Litt. 43. 
  Contra non volentem agere nulla currit praescriptio. No prescription runs 
     against a person unable to act. Broom's Max. 398. 
  Contra veritatem lex numquam aliquid permittit. The law never suffers 
     anything contrary to truth. 2 Co. Inst. 252. But sometimes it allows a 
     conclusive presumption in opposition to truth. See 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3061. 
  Contractus legem ex conventione accipiunt. The agreement of the parties 
     makes the law of the contract. Dig. 16, 3, 1, 6. 
  Contractus ex turpi causa, vel contra bonos mores nullus est. A contract 
     founded on a base and unlawful consideration, or against good morals, is 
     null. Hob. 167; Dig. 2, 14, 27, 4. 
  Conventio vincit legem. The agreement of the parties overcomes or prevails 
     against the law. Story, Ag. Sec.  See Dig. 16, 3, 1, 6. 
  Copulatio verborum indicat acceptionem in eodem sensu. Coupling words 
     together shows that they ought to be understood in the same sense. 
     Bacon's Max. in Reg. 3. 
  Corporalis injuria non recipit aestimationem de futuro. A personal injury 
     does no receive satisfaction from a future course of proceding. Bacon's 
     Max. in Reg. 6. 
  Cuilibet in arte sua herito credendum est. Every one should be believed 
     skillful in how own art. Co. Litt. 125. Vide Experts; Opinion. 
  Cujus est commodum ejus debet esse incommodum. He who receives the benefit 
     should also bear the disadvantage. 
  Cujus est dare ejus est disponere. He who has a right to give, has the right 
     to dispose of the gift. 
  Cujus per errorem dati repetitio est, ejus consulto dati donatio est. 
     Whoever pays by mistake what he does not owe, may recover it back; but he 
     who pays, knowing he owes nothing; is presumed to give. 
  Cujus est solum, ejus est usque ad caelum. He who owns the soil, owns up to 
     the sky. Co. Litt. 4 a; Broom's Max. 172; Shep. To. 90; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 
     15, 70. 
  Cujus est divisio alterius est electio. Which ever of two parties has the 
     division, the other has the choice. Co. Litt. 166. 
  Cujusque rei potissima pars principium est. The principal part of everything 
     is the beginning. Dig. 1, 2, 1; 10 Co. 49. 
  Culpa tenet suos auctores. A fault finds its own. 
  Culpa est immiscere se rei ad se non pertinenti. It is a fault to meddle 
     with what does not belong to or does not concern you. Dig. 50, 17, 36. 
  Culpa paena par esto. Let the punishment be proportioned to the crime. 
  Culpa lata aequiparatur dolo. A concealed fault is equal to a deceit. 
  Cui pater est populus non habet ille patrem. He to whom the people is 
     father, has not a father. Co. Litt. 123. 
  Cum confitente sponte mitius est agendum. One making a voluntary confession, 
     is to be dealt with more mercifully. 4 Co. Inst. 66. 
  Cum duo inter se pugnantia reperiuntur in testamento ultimum ratum est. When 
     two things repugnant to each other are found in a will, the last is to be 
     confirmed. Co. Litt. 112. 
  Cum legitimae nuptiae factae sunt, patrem liberi sequuntur. Children born 
     under a legitimate marriage follow the condition of the father. 
  Cum adsunt testimonia rerum quid opus est verbis. When the proofs of facts 
     are present, what need is there of words. 2 Bulst. 53. 
  Curiosa et captiosa intepretatio in lege reprobatur. A curious and captious 
     interpretation in the law is to be reproved. 1 Bulst. 6. 
  Currit tempus contra desides et sui juris contemptores. Time runs against 
     the slothful and those who neglect their rights. 
  Cursus curiae est lex curiae. The practice of the court is the law of the 
     court. 3 Bulst. 53. 
  De fide et officio judicis non recipitur quaestio; sed de scientia, sive 
     error sit juris sive facti. Of the credit and duty of a judge, no 
     question can arise; but it is otherwise respecting his knowledge, whether 
     he be mistaken as to the law or fact. Bacon's max. Reg. 17. 
  De jure judices, de facto juratores, respondent. The judges answer to the 
     law, the jury to the facts. 
  De minimis non curat lex. The law does not notice or care for trifling 
     matters. Broom's Max. 333; Hob. 88; 5 Hill, N.Y. Rep. 170. 
  De morte hominis nulla est cunctatio longa. When the death of a human being 
     may be the consequence, no delay is long. Col Litt. 134. When the 
     question is on the life or death of a man, no delay is too long to admit 
     of inquiring into facts. 
  De non apparentibus et non existentibus eadem est ratio. The reason is the 
     same respecting things which do not appear, and those which do not exist. 
  De similibus ad similia eadem ratione procedendum est. From similars to 
     similars, we are to proceed by the same rule. 
  De similibus idem est judicium. Concerning similars the judgment is the 
     same. 7 Co. 18. 
  Debet esse finis litium. There ought to be an end of law suits. Jenk. Cent. 
     61. 
  Debet qui juri subjacere ubi delinquit. Every one ought to be subject to the 
     law of the place where he offends. 3 Co. Inst. 34. 
  Debile fundamentum, fallit opus. Where there is a weak foundation, the work 
     falls. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2068. 
  Debita sequuntur personam debitoris. Debts follow the person of the debtor. 
     Story, Confl. of Laws, Sec. 362. 
  Debitor non praesumitur donare. A debtor is not presumed to make a gift. See 
     1 Kames' Eq. 212; Dig. 50, 16, 108. 
  Debitum et contractus non sunt nullius loci. Debt and contract are of no 
     particular place. 
  Delegata potestas non potest delegari. A delegated authority cannot be again 
     delegated. 2 Co. Inst. 597; 5 Bing. N. C. 310; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1300. 
  Delegatus non potest delegare. A delegate or deputy cannot appoint another. 
     2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1936; Story, Ag. Sec. 33. 
  Derativa potestas non potest esse major primitiva. The power which is 
     derived cannot be greater than that from which it is derived. 
  Derogatur legi, cum pars detrahitur; abrogatur legi, cum prorsus tollitur. 
     To derogate from a law is to enact something contrary to it; to abrogate 
     a law, is to abolish it entirely. Dig. 50, 16, 102. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 
     91. 
  Designatio unius est exclusio alterius, et expressum facit cessare tacitum. 
     The appointment or designation of one is the exclusion of another; and 
     that expressed makes that which is implied cease. Co. Litt. 210. 
  Dies dominicus non est juridicus. Sunday is not a day in law. Co. Litt. 135 
     a; 21 Saund. 291. See Sunday. 
  Dies inceptus pro completo habetur. The day of undertaking or commencement 
     of the business is held as complete. 
  Dies incertus pro conditione habetur. A day uncertain is held as a 
     condition. 
  Dilationes in lege sunt odiosae. Delays in law are odious. 
  Disparata non debent jungi. Unequal things ought not to be joined. Jenk. 
     Cent. 24. 
  Dispensatio est vulnus, quod vulnerat jus commune. A dispensation is a wound 
     which wounds a common right. Dav. 69. 
  Dissimilum dissimiles est ratio. Of dissimilars the rule is dissimilar. Co. 
     Litt. 191. 
  Divinatio non interpretatio est, quae omnino recedit a litera. It is a guess 
     not interpretation which altogether departs from the letter. Bacon's Max. 
     in Reg. 3, p. 47. 
  Dolosus versatur generalibus. A deceiver deals in generals. 2 Co. 34. 
  Dolus auctoris non nocet successori. The fraud of a possessor does not 
     prejudice the successor. 
  Dolus circuitu non purgator. Fraud is not purged by circity. Bacon's Max. in 
     Reg. 1. 
  Domus sua cuique est tutissimum refugium. Every man's house is his castle. 5 
     Rep. 92. 
  Domus tutissimum cuique refugium atque receptaculum. The habitation of each 
     one is an inviolable asylum for him. Dig. 2, 4, 18. 
  Donatio perficitur possesione accipientis. A gift is rendered complete by 
     the possession of the receiver. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 712; 2 John. 52; 2 
     Leigh, 337. 
  Donatio non praesumitur. A gift is not presumed. 
  Donatur nunquam desinit possidere antequam donatarius incipiat possidere. He 
     that gives never ceases to possess until he that receives begins to 
     possess. Dyer, 281. 
  Dormiunt aliquando leges, nunquam moriuntur. The laws sometimes sleep, but 
     never die. 2 Co. Inst. 161. 
  Dos de dote peti non debet, Dower ought not to be sought from dower. 4 Co. 
     122. 
  Duas uxores eodem tempore habere non potest. It is not lawful to have two 
     wives at one time. Inst. 1, 10, 6. 
  Duo non possunt in solido unam rem possidere. Two cannot possess one thing 
     each in entirety. Co. Litt. 368. 
  Duplicationem possibilitatis lex non patitur. It is not allowed to double a 
     possibility. 1 Roll. R. 321. 
  Ea est accipienda interpretation, qui vitio curet. That interpretation is to 
     be received, which will not intend a wrong. Bacon's Max. Reg. 3, p. 47. 
  Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat. The burden of the proof lies 
     upon him who affirms, not he who denies. Dig. 22, 3, 2; Tait on Ev. 1; 1 
     Phil. Ev. 194; 1 Greenl. Ev. Sec. 74; 3 Louis. R. 83; 2 Dan. Pr. 408; 4 
     Bouv Inst. n. 4411. 
  Ei nihil turpe, cui nihil satis. To whom nothing is base, nothing is 
     sufficient. 4 Co. Inst. 53. 
  Ejus est non nolle, qui potest velle. He who may consent tacitly, may 
     consent expressly. Dig. 50, 17, 8. 
  Ejus est periculum cujus est dominium aut commodum. He who has the risk has 
     the  dominion or advantage. 
  Electa una via, non datur recursus ad alteram. When there is concurrence of 
     means, he who has chosen one cannot have recourse to another. 10 Toull. 
     n. 170. 
  Electio semel facta, et placitum testatum, non patitur regressum. Election 
     once made, and plea witnessed, suffers not a recall. Co. Litt. 146. 
  Electiones fiant rite et libere sine interruptione aliqua. Elections should 
     be made in due form and freely, without any interruption. 2 Co. Inst. 
     169. 
  Enumeratio infirmat regulam in casibus non enumeratis. Enumeration affirms 
     the rule in cases not enumerated. Bac. Aph. 17. 
  Equality is equity. Francis' Max., Max. 3; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3725. 
  Equity suffers not a right without a remedy.  4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3726. 
  Equity looks upon that as done, which ought to be done. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 
     3729; 1 Fonb. Eq. b. 1, ch. 6, s. 9, note; 3 Wheat. 563. 
  Error fucatus nuda veritate in multis est probabilior; et saepenumero 
     rationibus vincit veritatem error. Error artfully colored is in many 
     things more probable than naked truth; and frequently error conquers 
     truth and reasoning. 2 Co. 73. 
  Error juris nocet. Error of law is injurious. See 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3828. 
  Error qui non resistitur, approbatur. An error not resisted is approved. 
     Doct. & Stud. c. 70. 
  Error scribentis nocere non debet. An error made by a clerk ought not to 
     injure; a clerical error may be corrected. 
  Errores ad sua principia referre, est refellere. To refer errors to their 
     origin is to refute them. 3 Co. Inst. 15. 
  Est autem vis legem simulans. Violence may also put on the mask of law. 
  Est boni judicis ampliare jurisdictionem. It is the part of a good judge to 
     extend the jurisdiction. 
  Ex antecedentibus et consequentibus fit optima interpretatio. The best 
     interpretation is made from antecedents and consequents. 2 Co. Inst. 317. 
  Ex diuturnitate temporis, amnia praesumuntur solemniter esse acta. From 
     length of time, all things are presumed to have been done in due form. 
     Co. Litt. 6; 1 Greenl. Ev. Sec. 20. 
  Ex dolo malo non oritur action. Out of fraud no action arises. Cowper, 343; 
     Broom's Max. 349. 
  Ex facto jus oritur. Law arises out of fact; that is, its application must 
     be to facts. 
  Ex malificio non oritur contractus. A contract cannot arise out of an act 
     radically wrong and illegal. Broom's Max. 851. 
  Ex multitudine signorum, colligitur identitas vera. From the great number of 
     signs true identity may be ascertained. Bacon's Max. in Reg. 25. 
  Ex nudo pacto non oritur action. No actions arises on a naked contract 
     without a consideration. See Nudum Pactum. 
  Ex tota materia emergat resolutio. The construction or resolution should 
     arise out of the whole subject matter. 
  Ex turpi causa non oritur action. No action arises out of an immoral 
     consideration. 
  Ex turpi contractu non oritur actio. No action arises on an immoral 
     contract. 
  Ex uno disces omnes. From one thing you can discern all. 
  Excusat aut extenuat delictum in capitalibus, quod non operatur idem in 
     civilibus. A wrong in capital cases is excused or palliated which would 
     not be so in civil matters. Bacon's Max. Reg. 7. 
  Exceptio ejus rei cujus petitiur dissolutio nulla est. There can be no plea 
     of that thing of which the dissolution is sought. Jenk. Cent. 37. 
  Exceptio falsi omnium ultima. A false plea is the basest of all things. 
  Exceptio firmat regulam in contrarium. The exception affirms the rule in 
     contrary cases. Bac. Aph. 17. 
  Exceptio firmat regulam in casibus non exceptis. The exception affirms the 
     rule in cases not excepted. Bac. Aph. 17. 
  Exceptio nulla est versus actionem quae exceptionem perimit. There can be no 
     plea against an action which entirely destroys the plea. Jenk. Cent. 106. 
  Exceptio probat regulam de rebus non exceptio. An exception proves the rule 
     concerning things not excepted. 11 Co. 41. 
  Exceptio quoque regulam declarat. The exception also declares the rule. Bac. 
     Aph. 17. 
  Exceptio semper ultima ponenda est. An exception is always to be put last. 9 
     Co. 53. 
  Executio est finis et fructus legis. An execution is the end and the first 
     fruit of the law. Co. Litt. 259. 
  Executio juris non habet injuriam. The execution of the law causes no 
     injury. 2 Co. Inst. 482; Broom's Max. 57. 
  Exempla illustrant non restringunt legem. Examples illustrate and do not 
     restrict the law. Co. Litt. 24. 
  Expedit reipublicae ut sit finis litium. It is for the public good that 
     there be an end of litigation. Co. Litt. 303. 
  Expressa nocent, non expressa non nocent. Things expressed may be 
     prejudicial; things not expressed are not. See Dig. 50, 17, 195. 
  Expressio eorum quae tacite insunt nihil operatur. The expression of those 
     things which are tacitly implied operates nothing. 
  Expressio unius est exclusio alterius. The expression of one thing is the 
     exclusion of another. 
  Expressum facit cessare tacitum. What is expressed renders what is implied 
     silent. 
  Extra legem positus est civiliter mortuus. One out of the pale of the law, 
     (an outlaw,) is civilly dead. 
  Extra territorium jus dicenti non paretur impune. One who exercises 
     jurisdiction out of his territory is not obeyed with impunity. 
  Facta sunt potentiora verbis. Facts are more powerful than words. 
  Factum a judice quod ad ujus officium non spectat, non ratum est. An act of 
     a judge which does not relate to his office, is of no force. 10 Co. 76. 
  Factum negantis nulla probatio. Negative facts are not proof. 
  Factum non dictur quod non perseverat. It cannot be called a deed which does 
     not hold out or persevere. 5 Co. 96. 
  Factum unius alteri nocere non debet. The deed of one should not hurt the 
     other. Co. Litt. 152. 
  Facultas probationum non est angustanda. The faculty or right of offering 
     proof is not to be narrowed. 4 Co. Inst. 279. 
  Falsa demonstratio non nocet. A false or mistaken description does not 
     vitiate. 6T. R. 676; see 2 Story's Rep. 291; 1 Greenl. Ev. Sec.  301. 
  Falsa ortho graphia, sive falsa grammatica, non vitiat concessionem. False 
     spelling or false grammar do not vitiate a grant. 9 Co. 48; Shep. To. 
     55. 
  Falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus. False in one thing, false in everything. 1 
     Sumn. 356. 
  Fiat justitia ruat caelum. Let justice be done, though the heavens should 
     fall. 
  Felonia implicatur in quolibet proditione. Felony is included or implied in 
     every treason. 3 Co. Inst. 15. 
  Festinatio justitiae est noverca infortunii. The hurrying of justice is the 
     stepmother of misfortune. Hob. 97. 
  Fiat prout, fieri consuerit, nil temere novandum. Let it be done as 
     formerly, let nothing be done rashly. Jenk. Cent. 116. 
  Fictio est contra veritatem, sed pro veritate habetur. Fiction is against the
  
     truth, but it is to have truth. 
  Finis rei attendendus est. The end of a thing is to be attended to. 3 Co. 
     Inst. 51. 
  Finis finem litibus imponit. The end puts an end to litigation. 3 Inst. 78. 
  Finis unius diei est principium alterius. The end of one day is the 
     beginning of another. 2 Buls. 305. 
  Firmior et potentior est operatio legis quam dispositio hominis. The 
     disposition of law is firmer and more powerful than the will of man. Co. 
     Litt. 102. 
  Flumina et protus publica sunt, ideoque jus piscandi omnibus commune est. 
     Rivers and ports are public, therefore the right of fishing there is 
     common to all. 
  Faemina ab omnibus officiis civilibus vel publicis remotae sunt. Women are 
     excluded from all civil and public charges or offices. Dig. 50, 17, 2. 
  Forma legalis forma essentialis. Legal form is essential form. 10 Co. 100. 
  Forma non observata, inferiur adnullatio actus. When form is not observed a 
     nullity of the act is inferred. 12 Co. 7. 
  Forstellarius est pauperum depressor, et totius communitatis et patriae 
     publicus inimicus. A forestaller is an oppressor of the poor, and a 
     public enemy to the whole community and the country. 3 Co. Inst. 196. 
  Fortior est custodia legis quam hominis. The custody of the law is stronger 
     than that of man. 2 Roll. R. 325. 
  Fortior et potentior est dispositio legis quam hominis. The disposition of 
     the law is stronger and more powerful than that of man. Co Litt. 234. 
  Fraus est celare fraudem. It is a fraud to conceal a fraud. 1 Vern. 270. 
  Fraus est odiosa et non praesumenda. Fraud is odious and not to be presumed. 
     Cro. Car. 550. 
  Fraus et dolus nemini patrocianari debent. Fraud and deceit should excuse no 
     man. 3 Co. 78. 
  Fraus et jus numquam cohabitant. Fraud and justice never agree together. 
     Wing. 680. 
  Fraus latet in generalibus. Fraud lies hid in general expressions. 
  Fraus meretur fraudem. Fraud deserves fraud. Plow. 100. This is very 
     doubtful morality. 
  Fructus pendentes pars fundi videntur. Hanging fruits make part of the land. 
     Dig. 6, 1, 44; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1578. See Larceny. 
  Fructus perceptos villae non esse constat. Gathered fruits do not make a 
     part of the house. Dig. 19, 1, 17, 1; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1578. 
  Frustra est potentia quae numcquam venit in actum. The power which never 
     comes to be exercised is vain. 2 Co. 51. 
  Frustra feruntur legis nisi subditis et obedientibus. Laws are made to no 
     purpose unless for those who are subject and obedient. 7 Co. 13. 
  Frustra legis auxilium quaerit qui in legem committit. Vainly does he who 
     offends against the law, seek the help of the law. 
  Frustra petis quoa statim alteri reddere cogeris. Vainly you ask that which 
     you will immediately be compelled to restore to another. Jenk. Cent. 256. 
  Frustra probatur quod probatum non relevat. It is vain to prove that which 
     if proved would not aid the matter in question. 
  Furiosus absentis loco est. The insane is compared to the absent. Dig. 50, 
     17, 24, 1. 
  Furiosus solo furore punitur. A madman is punished by his madness alone. Co. 
     Litt. 247. 
  Furtum non est ubi initium habet detentionis per dominum rei. It is not 
     theft where the commencement of the detention arises through the owner of 
     the thing. 3 Co. Inst. 107. 
  Generale tantum valet in generalibus, quanium singulare singulis. What is 
     general prevails or is worth as much among things general, as what is 
     particular among things particular. 11 Co. 59. 
  Generale dictum generaliter est interpretandum. A general expression is to 
     be construed generally. 8 co. 116. 
  Generale nihil certum implicat. A general expression implies nothing 
     certain. 2 Co. 34. 
  Generalia sunt praeponenda singularibus. General things are to be put before 
     particular things. 
  Generalia verba sunt generaliter intelligenda. General words are understood 
     in a general sense. 3 Co. Inst. 76. 
  Generalis clausula non porrigitur ad ea quae antea specialiter sunt 
     comprehensa. A general clause does not extend to those things which are 
     previously provided for specially. 8 Co. 154. 
  Haeredem Deus facit, non homo. God and not man, make the heir. 
  Haeredem est nomen collectivum. Heir is a collective name. 
  Haeris est nomen juris, filius est nomen naturae. Heir is a term of law, son 
     one of nature. 
  Haeres est aut jure proprietatis aut jure representationis. An heir is 
     either by right of property or right of representation. 3 Co. 40. 
  Haeres est alter ispe, et filius est pars patris. An heir is another self, 
     and a son is a part of the father. 
  Haeres est eadem persona cum antecessore. The heir is the same person with 
     the ancestor. Co. Litt. 22. 
  Haeres haeredis mei est meus haeres. The heir of my heir is my heir. 
  Haeres legitimus est quem nuptiae demonstrant. He is the lawful heir whom 
     the marriage demonstrates. 
  He who has committed iniquity, shall not have equity. Francis' Max., Max. 2. 
  He who will have equity done to him, must do equity to the same person. 4 
     Bouv. Inst. n. 3723. 
  Hominum causa jus constitutum est. Law is established for the benefit of 
     man. 
  Id quod nostrum est, sine facto nostro ad alium transferi non potest. What 
     belongs to us cannot be transferred to another without our consent. Dig. 
     50, 17, 11. But this must be understood with this qualification, that the 
     government may take property for public use, paying the owner its value. 
     The title to property may also be acquired, with the consent of the 
     owner, by a judgment of a competent tribunal. 
  Id certum est quod certum reddi potest. That is certain which may be 
     rendered certain. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 929; 2 Bl. Com. 143; 4 Kent Com. 462; 
     4 Pick 179. 
  Idem agens et patiens esse non potest. One cannot be agent and patient, in 
     the same matter. Jenk. Cent. 40. 
  Idem est facere, et nolle prohibere cum possis. It is the same thing to do a 
     thing as not to prohibit it when in your power. 3 Co. 
  Inst. 178. 
  Idem est non probari et non esse; non deficit jus, sed probatio. What does 
     not appear and what is not is the same; it is not the defect of the law, 
     but the want of proof. 
  Idem est nihil dicere et insufficienter dicere. It is the same thing to say 
     nothing and not to say it sufficiently. 2 Co. Inst. 178. 
  Idem est scire aut scire debet aut potuisse. To be able to know is the same 
     as to know. This maxim is applied to the duty of every one to know the 
     law. 
  Idem non esse et non apparet. It is the same thing not to exist and not to 
     appear. Jenk. Cent. 207. 
  Idem semper antecedenti proximo refertur. The same is always referred to its 
     next antecedent. Co. Litt. 385. 
  Identitas vera colligitur ex multitudine signorum. True identity is 
     collected from a number of signs. 
  Id perfectum est quod ex omnibus suis partibus constat. That is perfect 
     which is complete in all its parts. 9 Co. 9. 
  Id possumus quod de jure possumus. We may do what is allowed by law. Lane, 
     116. 
  Ignorantia excusatur, non juris sed facti. Ignorance of fact may excuse, but 
     not ignorance of law. See Ignorance. 
  Ignorantia legis neminem excusat. Ignorance of fact may excuse, but not 
     ignorance of law. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3828. 
  Ignorantia facti excusat, ignorantia juris non excusat. Ignorance of facts 
     excuses, ignorance of law does not excuse. 1 Co. 177; 4 Bouv. Inst. n 
     3828. See Ignorance. 
  Ignorantia judicis est calamitas innocentis. The ignorance of the judge is 
     the misfortune of the innocent. 2 Co. Inst. 591. 
  Ignorantia terminis ignoratur et ars. An ignorance of terms is to be 
     ignorant of the art. Co. Litt. 2. 
  Illud quod alias licitum non est necessitas facit licitum, et necessitas 
     inducit privilegium quod jure privatur. That which is not otherwise 
     permitted, necessity allows, and necessity makes a privilege which 
     supersedes the law. 10 Co. 61. 
  Imperitia culpae annumeratur. Ignorance, or want of skill, is considered a 
     negligence, for which one who professes skill is responsible. Dig. 50, 
     17, 132; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1004. 
  Impersonalitas non concludit nec ligat. Impersonality neither concludes nor 
     binds. Co. Litt. 352. 
  Impotentia excusat legem. Impossibility excuses the law. Co. Litt. 29. 
  Impunitas continuum affectum tribuit delinquenti. Impunity offers a 
     continual bait to a delinquent. 4 Co. 45. 
  In alternativis electio est debitoris. In alternatives there is an election 
     of the debtor. 
  In aedificiis lapis male positus non est removendus. A stone badly placed in 
     a building is not to be removed. 11 Co. 69. 
  In aequali jure melior est conditio possidentis. When the parties have equal 
     rights, the condition of the possessor is the better. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 215; 
     Jer. Eq. Jur. 285; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 170; Dig. 50, 17, 128. Plowd. 296. 
  In commodo haec pactio, ne dolus praestetur, rata non est. If in a contract 
     for a loan there is inserted a clause that the borrower shall not be 
     answerable for fraud, such clause is void. Dig. 13, 6, 17. 
  In conjunctivis oportet utramque partem esse veram. In conjunctives each 
     part ought to be true. Wing. 13. 
  In consimili casu consimile debet esse remedium. In similar cases the remedy 
     should be similar. Hard. 65. 
  In contractibus, benigna; in testamentis, benignior; in restitutionibus, 
     benignissima interpretatio facienda est. In contracts, the interpretation 
     or construction should be liberal; in wills, more liberal; in 
     restitutions, more liberal. Co. Litt. 112. 
  In conventibus contrahensium voluntatem potius quam verba spectari placuit. 
     In the agreements of the contracting parties, the rule is to regard the 
     intention rather than the words. Dig. 50, 16, 219. 
  In criminalibus, probationes bedent esse luce clariores. In criminal cases, 
     the proofs ought to be clearer than the light. 3 Co. inst. 210. 
  In criminalibus sufficit generalis malitia intentionis cum facto paris 
     gradus. In criminal cases a general intention is sufficient, when there 
     is an act of equal or corresponding degree. Bacon's Max. Reg. 15. 
  In disjunctivis sufficit alteram partem esse veram. In disjunctives, it is 
     sufficient if either part be true. Wing. 15. 
  In dubiis magis dignum est accipiendum. In doubtful cases the more worthy is 
     to be taken. Branch's Prin. h.t. 
  In dubiis non praesumitur pro testamento. In doubtful cases there is no 
     presumption in favor of the will. Cro. Car. 51. 
  In dubio haec legis constructio quam verba ostendunt. In a doubtful case, 
     that is the construction of the law which the words indicate. Br. Pr. 
     h.t. 
  In dubio pars melior est sequenda. In doubt, the gentler course is to be 
     followed. 
  In dubio, sequendum quod tutius est. In doubt, the safer course is to be 
     adopted. 
  In eo quod plus sit, semper inest et minus. The less is included in the 
     greater. 50, 17, 110. 
  In facto quod se habet ad bonum et malum magis de bono quam de malo lex 
     intendit. In a deed which may be considered good or bad, the law looks 
     more to the good than to the bad. Co. Litt. 78. 
  In favorabilibus magis attenditur quod prodest quam quod nocet. In things 
     favored what does good is more regarded than what does harm. Bac. Max. in 
     Reg. 12. 
  In fictione juris, semper subsistit aequitas. In a fiction of law, equity 
     always subsists. 11 Co. 51. 
  In judiciis minori aetati sucuritur. In judicial proceedings, infancy is 
     aided or favored. 
  In judicio non creditur nisi juratis. In law none is credited unless he is 
     sworn. All the facts must when established, by witnesses, be under oath 
     or affirmation. Cro. Car. 64. 
  In jure non remota causa, sed proxima spectatur. In law the proximate, and 
     not the remote cause, is to be looked to. Bacon's Max. REg. 1. 
  In majore summa continetur minor. In the greater sum is contained the less. 
     5 Co. 115. 
  In maleficio ratihabitio mandato comparatur. He who ratifies a bad action is 
     considered as having ordered it. Dig. 50, 17, 152, 2. 
  In mercibus illicitis non sit commercium. NO commerce should be in illicit 
     goods. 3 Kent, Com. 262, n. 
  In maxima potentia minima licentia. IN the greater power is included the 
     smaller license. Hob. 159. 
  In obscuris, quod minimum est, sequitur. In obscure cases, the milder course 
     ought to be pursued. Dig. 50, 17, 9. 
  In odium spoliatoris omnia praesumuntur. All things are presumed in odium of 
     a despoiler. 1 Vern. 19. 
  In omni re nascitur res qua ipsam rem exterminat. In everything, the thing 
     is born which destroys the thing itself. 2 Co. Inst. 15. 
  In omnibus contractibus, sive nominatis sive innominatis, permutatio 
     continetur. In every contract, whether nominate or innominate, there is 
     implied a consideration. 
  In omnibus quidem, maxime tamen in jure, aequitas spectanda sit. In all 
     affairs, and principally in those which concern the administration of 
     justice, the rules of equity ought to be followed. Dig. 50, 17, 90. 
  In omnibus obligationibus, in quibus dies non ponitar, praesenti die 
     debutur. In all obligations when no time is fixed for the payment, the 
     thing is due immediately. Dig. 50, 17, 14. 
  In praesentia majoris potestatis, minor potestas cessat. In the presence of 
     the superior power, the minor power ceases. Jenk. Cent. 214. 
  In pari causa possessor potior haberi debet. When two parties have equal 
     rights, the advantage is always in favor of the possessor. Dig. 50, 17, 
     128. 
  In pari causa possessor potior est. In an equal case, better is the 
     condition of the possessor. Dig. 50, 17, 128; Poth. Vente, n. 320; 1 
     Bouv. Inst. n. 952. 
  In pari delicto melior est conditio possidentis. When the parties are 
     equally in the wrong, the condition of the possessor is better. 11 Wheat. 
     258; 3 Cranch 244; Cowp. 341; Broom's Max. 325; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3724. 
  In propria causa nemo judex. No one can be judge in his own cause. 
  In quo quis delinquit, in eo de jure est puniendus. In whatever thing one 
     offends, in that he is rightfully to be punished. Co. Litt. 233. 
  In repropria iniquum admodum est alicui licentiam tribuere sententiae. It is 
     extremely unjust that any one should be judge in his own cause. 
  In re dubia magis inficiata quam affirmatio intelligenda. In a doubtful 
     matter, the negative is to be understood rather than the affirmative. 
     Godb. 37. 
  In republica maxime conservande sunt jura belli. In the state the laws of 
     war are to be greatly preserved. 2 Co. Inst. 58. 
  In restitutionem, non in paenam haeres succedit. The heir succeeds to the 
     restitution not the penalty. 2 Co. Inst. 198. 
  In restitutionibus benignissima interpretatio facienda est. The most 
     favorable construction is made in restitutions. Co. Litt. 112. 
  In suo quisque negotio hebetior est quam in alieno. Every one is more dull 
     in his own business than in that of another. Co. Litt. 377. 
  In toto et pars continetur. A part is included in the whole. Dig. 50, 17, 
     113. 
  In traditionibus scriptorum non quod dictum est, sed quod gestum est, 
     inscpicitur. In the delivery of writing, not what is said, but what is 
     done is to be considered. 9 co. 137. 
  Incerta pro nullius habentur. Things uncertain are held for nothing Dav. 33. 
  Incerta quantitas vitiat acium. An uncertain quantity vitiates the act. 1 
     Roll. R. 465. 
  In civile est nisi tota sententia inspectu, de aliqua parte judicare. It is 
     improper to pass an opinion on any part of a sentence, without examining 
     the whole. Hob. 171. 
  Inclusio unius est exclusio alterius. The inclusion of one is the exclusion 
     of another. 11 Co. 58. 
  Incommodum non solvit argumentum. An inconvenience does not solve an 
     argument. 
  Indefinitum aequipolet universali. The undefined is equivalent to the whole. 
     1 Ventr. 368. 
  Indefinitum supplet locum universalis. The undefined supplies the place of 
     the whole Br. Pr. h.t. 
  Independenter se habet assecuratio a viaggio vanis. The voyage insured is an 
     independent or distinct thing from the voyage of the ship. 3 Kent, Com. 
     318, n. 
  Index animi sermo. Speech is the index of the mind. 
  Inesse potest donationi, modus, conditio sive causa; ut modus est; si 
     conditio; quia causa. In a gift there may be manner, condition and cause; 
     as, (ut), introduces a manner; if, (si), a condition; because, (quia), a 
     cause. Dy. 138. 
  Infinitum in jure reprobatur. That which is infinite or endless is 
     reprehensible in law. 9 Co. 45. 
  Iniquum est alios permittere, alios inhibere mercaturam. It is inequitable 
     to permit some to trade, and to prohibit others. 3 Co. 
  Inst. 181. 
  Iniquum est aliquem rei sui esse judicem. It is against equity for any one 
     to be judge in his own cause. 12 Co. 13. 
  Iniquum est ingenuis hominibus non esse liberam rerum suarum alienationem. 
     It is against equity to deprive freeman of the free disposal of their own 
     property. Co. Litt. 223. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 455, 460. 
  Injuria non praesumitur. A wrong is not presumed. Co. Litt. 232. 
  Injuria propria non cadet in beneficium facientis. One's own wrong shall not 
     benefit the person doing it. 
  Injuria fit ei cui convicium dictum est, vel de eo factum carmen famosum. It 
     is a slander of him who a reproachful thing is said, or concerning whom 
     an infamous song is made. 9 Co. 60. 
  Intentio caeca, mala. A hidden intention is bad. 2 Buls. 179. 
  Intentio inservire debet legibus, non leges intentioni. Intentions ought to 
     be subservient to the laws, not the laws to intentions. Co. Litt. 314. 
  Intentio mea imponit nomen operi meo. My intent gives a name to my act. Hob. 
     123. 
  Interest reipublicae ne maleficia remaneant impunita. It concerns the 
     commonwealth that crimes do not remain unpunished. Jenk. Cent. 30, 31. 
  Interest reipublicae res judicatas non rescindi. It concerns the common 
     wealth that things adjudged be not rescinded. Vide Res judicata. 
  Interest reipublicae quod homines conserventur. It concerns the commonwealth 
     that we be preserved. 12 Co. 62. 
  Interest reipublicae ut qualibet re sua bene utatur. It concerns the 
     commonwealth that every one use his property properly. 6 Co. 37. 
  Interest reipublicae ut carceres sint in tuto. It concerns the commonwealth 
     that prisons be secure. 2 Co. Inst. 589. 
  Interest reipublicae suprema hominum testamenta rata haberi. It concerns the 
     commonwealth that men's last wills be sustained. Co. Litt. 236. 
  Interest reipublicae ut sit finis litium. In concerns the commonwealth that 
     there be an end of law suits. Co. Litt. 303. 
  Interpretare et concordare leges legibus est optimus interpretandi modus. To 
     interpret and reconcile laws so that they harmonize is the best mode of 
     construction. 8 Co. 169. 
  Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis valeat quam pereat. That construction 
     is to be made so that the subject may have an effect rather than none. 
     Jenk. Cent. 198. 
  Interpretatio talis in ambiguis semper fienda, ut evitetur inconveniens et 
     absurdum. In ambiguous things, such a construction is to be made, that 
     what is inconvenient and absurd is to be avoided. 4 Co. Inst. 328. 
  Interruptio multiplex non tollit praescriptionem semel obtentam. Repeated 
     interruptions do not defeat a prescription once obtained. 2 Co. Inst. 
     654. 
  Inutilis labor, et sine fructu, non est effectus legis. Useless labor and 
     without fruit, is not the effect of law. Co. Lit. 127. 
  Invito beneficium non datur. No one is obliged to accept a benefit against 
     his consent. Dig. 50, 17, 69. But if he does not dissent he will be 
     considered as assenting. Vide Assent. 
  Ipsae legis cupiunt ut jure regantur. The laws themselves require that they 
     should be governed by right. Co. Litt. 174. 
  Judex ante occulos aequitatem semper habere debet. A judge ought always to 
     have equity before his eyes. Jenk. Cent. 58. 
  Judex aequitatem semper spectare debet. A judge ought always to regard 
     equity. Jenk. Cent. 45. 
  Judex bonus nihil ex arbitrio suo faciat, nec propositione domesticae 
     voluntatis, sed juxta legis et jura pronunciet. A good judge should do 
     nothing from his own judgment, or from the dictates of his private 
     wishes; but he should pronounce according to law and justice. 7 co. 27. 
  Judex debet judicare secundum allegata et probata. The judge ought to decide 
     according to the allegation and the proof. 
  Judex est lex loquens. The judge is the speaking law. 7 co. 4. 
  Judex non potest esse testis in propria causa A judge cannot be a witness in 
     his own cause. 4 Co. Inst. 279. 
  Judex non potest injuriam sibi datum punire. A judge cannot punish a wrong 
     done to himself. 12 Co. 113. 
  Judex damnatur cum nocens absolvitur. The judge is condemned when the guilty 
     are acquitted. 
  Judex non reddat plus quam quod petens ipse requireat. The judge does demand 
     more than the plaintiff demands. 2 Inst. 286. 
  Judici officium suum excedenti non paretur. To a judge who exceeds his 
     office or jurisdiction no obedience is due. Jenk. Cent. 139. 
  Judici satis paena est quod Deum habet ultorem. It is punishment enough for 
     a judge that he is responsible to God. 1 Leon. 295. 
  Judicia in deliberationibus crebro naturescunt, in accelerato processu 
     nunquam. Judgments frequently become matured by deliberation, never by 
     hurried process. 3 Co. Inst. 210. 
  Judicia posteriora sunt in lege fortiora. The latter decisions are stronger 
     in law. 8 Co. 97. 
  Judicia sunt tanquam juris dicta, et pro veritate accipiuntur. Judgments 
     are, as it were, the dicta or sayings of the law, and are received as 
     truth. 2 Co. Inst. 573. 
  Judiciis posterioribus fides est adhibenda. Faith or credit is to be given 
     to the last decisions. 13 Co. 14. 
  Judicis est in pronuntiando sequi regulam, exceptione non probata. The judge 
     in his decision ought to follow the rule, when the exception is not made 
     apparent. 
  Judicis est judicare secundum allegata et probata. A judge ought to decide 
     according to the allegations and proofs. Dyer. 12. 
  Judicium a non suo judice datum nullius est momenti. A judgment given by an 
     improper judge is of no moment. 11 Co. 76. 
  Judicium non debet esse illusorium, suum effectum habere debet. A judgment 
     ought not to be illusory, it ought to have its consequence. 2 Inst. 341. 
  Judicium redditur in invitum, in praesumptione legis. In presumption of law, 
     a judgment is given against inclination. Co. Litt. 248. 
  Judicium semper pro veritate accipitur. A judgment is always taken for 
     truth. 2 Co. Inst. 380. 
  Jura sanguinis nullo jure civili dirimi possunt. The right of blood and 
     kindred cannot be destroyed by any civil law. Dig. 50, 17, 9; Bacon's 
     Max. Reg. 11. 
  Jura naturae sunt immutabilia. The laws of nature are unchangeable. 
  Jura eodem modo distruuntur quo constituuntur. Laws are abrogated or 
     repealed by the same means by which they are made. 
  Juramentum est indivisibile, et non est admittendum in parte verum et in 
     parte falsam. An oath is indivisible, it cannot be in part true and in 
     part false. 
  Jurato creditur in judicio. He who makes oath is to be believed in judgment. 
  Jurare est Deum in testum vocare, et est actus divini cultus. To swear is to 
     call God to witness, and is an act of religion. 3 Co. Inst. 165. Vide 3 
     Bouv. Inst. n. 3180, note; 1 Benth. Rat. of Jud. Ev. 376, 371, note. 
  Juratores sunt judices facti. Juries are the judges of the facts. Jenk. 
     Cent. 58. 
  Juris effectus in executione consistit. The effect of a law consists in the 
     execution. Co. Litt. 289. 
  Jus accrescendi inter mercatores locum non habet, pro beneficio commercii. 
     The right of survivorship does not exist among merchants for the benefit 
     of commerce. Co. Litt. 182; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 682. 
  Jus accrescendi praefertur oneribus. The right of survivorship is preferred 
     to incumbrances. Co. Litt. 185. 
  Jus accrescendi praefertur ultimae voluntati. The right of survivorship is 
     preferred to a last will. Co. Litt. 1856. 
  Jus descendit et non terra. A right descends, not the land. Co. Litt. 345. 
  Jus est ars boni et aequi. Law is the science of what is good and evil. Dig. 
     1, 1, 1, l. 
  Jus et fraudem numquam cohabitant. Right and fraud never go together. 
  Jus ex injuria non oritur. A right cannot arise from a wrong. 4 Bing. 639. 
  Jus publicum privatorum pactis mutari non potest. A public right cannot be 
     changed by private agreement. 
  Jus respicit aequitatem. Law regards equity. Co. Litt. 24. 
  Jus superveniens auctori accressit successors. A right owing to a 
     possessor accrues to a successor. 
  Justicia est virtus excellens et Altissimo complacens. Justice is an 
     excellent virtue and pleasing to the Most high. 4 inst. 58. 
  Justitia nemine neganda est. Justice is not to be denied. Jenk. Cent. 178. 
  Justitia non est neganda, non differenda. Justice is not to be denied nor 
     delayed. Jenk. Cent. 93. 
  Justitia non novit patrem nec matrem, solum veritatem spectat justitia. 
     Justice knows neither father nor mother, justice looks to truth alone. 1 
     Buls. 199. 
  La conscience est la plus changeante des regles. Conscience is the most 
     changeable of rules. 
  Lata culpa dolo aequiparatur. Gross negligence is equal to fraud. 
  Le contrat fait la loi. The contract makes the law. 
  Legatos violare contra jus gentium est. It is contrary to the law of nations 
     to violate the rights of ambassadors. 
  Legatum morte testatoris tantum confirmatur, sicut donatio inter vivos 
     traditione sola. A legacy is confirmed by the death of the testator, in 
     the same manner as a gift from a living person is by delivery alone. 
     Dyer, 143. 
  Leges posteriores priores contrarias abrogant. Subsequent laws repeal those 
     before enacted to the contrary. 2 Rol. R. 410; 11 Co. 626, 630. 
  Leges humanae nascuntur, vivunt et moriuntur. Human laws are born, live and 
     die. 7 co. 25. 
  Leges non verbis sed regus sunt impositae. Laws, not words, are imposed on 
     things. 10 Co. 101. 
  Legibus sumptis disinentibus, lege naturae utendum est. When laws imposed by 
     the state fail, we must act by the law of nature. 2 Roll. R. 298. 
  Legis constructio non facit injuriam. The construction of law does no wrong. 
     Co. Litt. 183. 
  Legis figendi et refigendi consuetudo periculosissima est. The custom of 
     fixing and refixing (making and annulling) laws is most dangerous. 4 Co. 
     Ad. Lect. 
  Legis interpretatio legis vim obtinet. The construction of law obtains the 
     force of law. 
  Legislatorum est viva vox, rebus et non verbis, legem imponere. The voice of 
     legislators is a living voice, to impose laws on things and not on words. 
     10 Co. 101. 
  Legis minister non tenetur, in executione officii sui fugere aut 
     retrocedere. The minister of the law is not bound, in the execution of 
     his office, neither to fly nor retreat. 6 Co. 68. 
  Legitime imperanti parere necesse est. One who commands lawfully must be 
     obeyed. Jenk. Cent. 120. 
  Les fictions naissent de la loi, et non la loi des fictions. Fictions arise 
     from the law, and not law from fictions. 
  Lex aliquando sequitur aequitatem. The law sometimes follows equity. 3 Wils. 
     119. 
  Lex aequitate guadet; appetit perfectum; est norma recti. The law delights 
     in equity; it covets perfection; it is a rule of right. Jenk. Cent. 36. 
  Lex beneficialis rei consimili remedium praestat. A beneficial law affords a 
     remedy in a similar case. 2 Co. Inst. 689. 
  Lex citius tolerare vult privatum damnum quam publicum malum. The law would 
     rather tolerate a private wrong than a public evil. Co. Litt. 152. 
  Lex de futuro, judex de praeterito. The law provides for the future, the 
     judge for the past. 
  Lex deficere non potest in justitia exhibenda. The law ought not to fail in 
     dispensing justice. Co. Litt. 197. 
  Lex dilationes semper exhorret. The law always abhors delay. 2 Co. Inst. 
     240. 
  Lex est ab aeterno. The law is from everlasting. 
  Lex est dictamen rationis. Law is the dictate of reason. Jenk. Cent. 117. 
  Lex est norma recti. Law is a rule of right. 
  Lex est ratio summa, quae jubet quae sunt utilia et necessaria, et contraria 
     prohibet. Law is the perfection of reason, which commands what is useful 
     and necessary and forbids the contrary. Co. Litt. 319. 
  Lex est sanctio sancta, jubens honesta, et prohibens contraria. Law is a 
     scared sanction, commanding what is right and prohibiting the contrary. 2 
     Co. Inst. 587. 
  Lex favet doti. The law favors dower. 
  Lex fingit ubi subsistit aequitas. Law feigns where equity subsists. 11 Co. 
     90. 
  Lex intendit vicinum vicini facta scire. The law presumes that one neighbor 
     knows the actions of another. Co. Litt. 78. 
  Lex judicat de rebus necessario faciendis quasire ipsa factis. The law 
     judges of things which must necessarily be done, as if actually done. 
  Lex necessitatis est lex temporis, i.e. instantis. The law of necessity is 
     the law of time, that is, time present. Hob. 159. 
  Lex neminem cogit ad vana seu inutilia peragenda. The forces

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