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ratification


4 dicționare găsite pentru ratification
Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Ratification \Rat`i*fi*ca"tion\
     (r[a^]t`[i^]*f[i^]*k[=a]"sh[u^]n), n. [Cf. F. ratification.]
     The act of ratifying; the state of being ratified;
     confirmation; sanction; as, the ratification of a treaty.
     [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul WordNet (r) 2.0 :

  ratification
       n : making something valid by formally ratifying or confirming
           it; "the ratification of the treaty"; "confirmation of
           the appointment" [syn: confirmation]

Din dicționarul Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0 :

  84 Moby Thesaurus words for "ratification":
     John Hancock, OK, acceptance, accord, acquiescence, affirmance,
     affirmation, affirmative, affirmative voice, agreement,
     approbation, approval, assent, attestation, authentication,
     authority, authorization, aye, backing, backing up, bearing out,
     blessing, bolstering, buttressing, certification,
     circumstantiation, clearance, compliance, confirmation, connivance,
     consent, corroboration, corroboratory evidence, countenance,
     countersignature, documentation, eagerness, empowerment, enabling,
     endorsement, enfranchisement, entitlement, fiat, fortification,
     go-ahead, green light, imprimatur, nod, notarization, okay,
     permission, promptitude, promptness, proof, proving, proving out,
     readiness, reinforcement, rubber stamp, sanction, seal, sigil,
     signature, signet, stamp, stamp of approval, strengthening,
     submission, subscription, substantiation, support,
     supporting evidence, the nod, undergirding, ungrudgingness,
     unloathness, unreluctance, validation, verification, visa, vise,
     warrant, warranty, willingness  
     
Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  RATIFICATION, contracts. An agreement to adopt an act performed by another 
  for us. 
       2. Ratifications are either empress or implied. The former are made in 
  express and direct terms of assent; the latter are such as the law presumes 
  from the acts of the principal; as, if Peter buy goods for James, and the 
  latter, knowing the fact, receive them and apply them to his own use. By 
  ratifying a contract a man adopts the agency, altogether, as well what is 
  detrimental as that which is for his benefit. 2 Str. R. 859; 1 Atk. 128; 4 
  T. R. 211; 7 East, R. 164; 16 M. R. 105; 1 Ves. 509 Smith on Mer. L. 60; 
  Story, Ag. Sec. 250 9 B. & Cr. 59. 
       3. As a general rule, the principal has the right to elect whether he 
  will adopt the unauthorized act or not. But having once ratified the act, 
  upon a full knowledge of all the material circumstances, the ratification 
  cannot be revoked or recalled, and the principal becomes bound as if he had 
  originally authorized the act. Story, Ag. Sec. 250; Paley, Ag. by Lloyd, 
  171; 3 Chit. Com. Law, 197. 
       4. The ratification of a lawful contract has a retrospective effect, 
  and binds the principal from its date, and not only from the time of the 
  ratification, for the ratification is equivalent to an original authority, 
  according to the maxim, that omnis ratihabitio mandate aeguiparatur. Poth. 
  Ob. n. 75; Ld. Raym. 930; Com. 450; 5 Burr. 2727; 2 H. Bl. 623; 1 B. & P. 
  316; 13 John.; R. 367; 2 John. Cas. 424; 2 Mass. R. 106. 
       5. Such ratification will, in general, relieve the agent from all 
  responsibility on the contract, when be would otherwise have been liable. 2 
  Brod. & Bing. 452. See 16 Mass. R. 461; 8 Wend. R. 494; 10 Wend. R. 399; 
  Story, Ag. Sec. 251. Vide Assent, and Ayl. Pand. *386; 18 Vin. Ab. 156; 1 
  Liv. on, Ag. c. 2, Sec. 4, p. 44, 47; Story on Ag. Sec. 239; 3 Chit. Com. L. 
  197; Paley on Ag. by Lloyd, 324; Smith on Mer. L. 47, 60; 2 John. Cas. 424; 
  13 Mass. R. 178; Id. 391; Id. 379; 6 Pick. R. 198; 1 Bro. Ch. R. 101, note; 
  S. C. Ambl. R. 770; 1 Pet. C. C. R. 72; Bouv. Inst. Index, h.t. 
       6. An infant is not liable on his contracts; but if, after coming of 
  age, he ratify the contract by an actual or express declaration, he will be 
  bound to perform it, as if it had been made after he attained full age. The 
  ratification must be voluntary, deliberate, and intelligent, and the party 
  must know that without it, he would not be bound. 11 S. & R. 305, 311; 3 
  Penn. St. R. 428. See 12 Conn. 551, 556; 10 Mass. 137,140; 14 Mass. 457; 4 
  Wend. 403, 405. But a confirmation or ratification of a contract, may be 
  implied from acts of the infant after he becomes of age; as by enjoying or 
  claiming a benefit under a contract be might have wholly rescinded; 1 Pick. 
  221, 22 3; and an infant partner will be liable for the contracts of the 
  firm, or at least such as were known to him, if he, after becoming of age, 
  confirm the contract of partnership by transacting business of the firm, 
  receiving profits, and the like. 2 Hill. So. Car. Rep. 479; 1 B. Moore, 289. 
  
  

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