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replication


5 dicționare găsite pentru replication
Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Replication \Rep`li*ca"tion\ (-k?"sh?n), n. [L. replicatio. See
     Reply.]
     1. An answer; a reply. --Shak.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              Withouten any repplicacioun.          --Chaucer.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. (Law Pleadings) The reply of the plaintiff, in matters of
        fact, to the defendant's plea.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     3. Return or repercussion, as of sound; echo.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              To hear the replication of your sounds. --Shak.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     4. A repetition; a copy.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     5. (Biochem.) The copying, by enzymes, of a cell's genome,
        i.e. the DNA or RNA comprising its genetic material, so as
        to form an identical genome. This is an essential step in
        the division of one cell into two. This differs from
        transcription, which is the copying of only part of the
        genetic information of a cell's genome into RNA, as in the
        processes of biosynthesis of messenger RNA or ribosomal
        RNA.
        [PJC]
  
     Syn: Answer; response; reply; rejoinder.
          [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul WordNet (r) 2.0 :

  replication
       n 1: the act of making copies; "Gutenberg's reproduction of holy
            texts was far more efficient" [syn: reproduction]
       2: (genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself
          before cell division
       3: a quick reply to a question or remark (especially a witty or
          critical one); "it brought a sharp rejoinder from the
          teacher" [syn: rejoinder, retort, return, riposte,
           comeback, counter]
       4: (law) a pleading made by a plaintiff in reply to the
          defendant's plea or answer
       5: the persistence of a sound after its source has stopped
          [syn: echo, reverberation, sound reflection]
       6: copy that is not the original; something that has been
          copied [syn: replica, reproduction]
       7: the repetition of an experiment in order to test the
          validity of its conclusion; "scientists will not believe
          an experimental result until they have seen at least one
          replication"

Din dicționarul Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0 :

  111 Moby Thesaurus words for "replication":
     Altmann theory, DNA, De Vries theory, Galtonian theory,
     Mendelianism, Mendelism, RNA, Verworn theory, Weismann theory,
     Weismannism, Wiesner theory, acknowledgment, allele, allelomorph,
     answer, answering, antiphon, back answer, back talk, backchat,
     birth, character, chromatid, chromatin, chromosome, clone,
     comeback, conduplication, confutation, contraremonstrance, copying,
     counteraccusation, counterblast, countercharge, counterclaim,
     counterpart, counterreply, counterstatement, defense, determinant,
     determiner, diathesis, ditto, double, doubling, dupe, duplicate,
     duplication, echo, endowment, eugenics, evasive reply, facsimile,
     factor, gemination, gene, genesiology, genetic code, genetics,
     hereditability, heredity, heritability, heritage, imitation,
     inborn capacity, ingemination, inheritability, inheritance,
     iteration, matrocliny, model, patrocliny, pharmacogenetics,
     quadruplicate, reaction, ready reply, rebuttal, rebutter, receipt,
     recessive character, reduplication, refutation, reiteration,
     rejoinder, repartee, repetition, replica, reply, repost,
     representation, reproduction, rescript, rescription, respondence,
     response, responsion, responsory, retort, return, reverberation,
     riposte, short answer, snappy comeback, surrebuttal, surrebutter,
     surrejoinder, triplicate, twinning, witty reply, witty retort,
     yes-and-no answer  
     
Din dicționarul The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (27 SEP 03) :

  replication
       
           Creating and maintaining a duplicate
          copy of a database or file system on a different computer,
          typically a server.  The term usually implies the
          intelligent copying of parts of the source database which have
          changed since the last replication with the destination.
       
          Replication may be one-way or two-way.  Two-way replication is
          much more complicated because of the possibility that a
          replicated object may have been updated differently in the two
          locations in which case some method is needed to reconcile the
          different versions.
       
          For example, Lotus Notes can automatically distribute
          document databases across telecommunications networks.  Notes
          supports a wide range of network protocols including X25
          and Internet TCP/IP.
       
          Compare mirror.  See also rdist.
       
          (1997-12-12)
       
       

Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  REPLICATION, pleading. The plaintiff's answer to the defendant's plea. 
       2. Replications will be considered, 1. With regard to their several 
  kinds. 2. To their form. 3. To their qualities. 
       3.-Sec. 1. They are to pleas in abatement and to pleas in bar. 
       4.-1. When the defendant pleads to the jurisdiction of the court, the 
  plaintiff may reply, and in this case the replication commences with a 
  statement that the writ ought not to be quashed, or that the court ought not 
  to be ousted of their jurisdiction, because &c., and concludes to the 
  country, if the replication merely deny the subject-matter of the plea. 
  Rast. Entr. 101 Thomps. Entr. 2; Clift's Entr. 17; 1 Chit. Pl. 434. As a 
  general rule, when the plea is to the misnomer of the plaintiff or 
  defendant, or when the plea consists of matter of fact which the plaintiff 
  denies, the replication may begin without any allegation that the writ or 
  bill ought not to be quashed. 1 Bos. & Pull. 61. 
       5.-2. The replication is, in general, governed by the plea, and most 
  frequently denies it. When the plea concludes to the country, the plaintiff 
  must, in general, reply by adding a similiter; but when the plea concludes 
  with a verification, the replication must either, 1. Conclude the defendant 
  by matter of estoppel; or, 2. May deny the truth of the matter alleged in 
  the plea, either in whole or in part; or, 3. May confess and avoid the plea; 
  or, 4. In the case of an evasive plea, may new assign the cause of action. 
  For the several kinds of replication as they relate to the different forms 
  of action, see 1 Chit. Pl. 551, et seq.; Arch. Civ. Pl. 258. 
       6.-Sec. 2. The form of the replication will be considered with regard 
  to, 1. The title. 2. The commencement. 3. The body. 4. The conclusion. 
       7.-1. The replication is usually entitled in the court and of the term 
  of which it is pleaded, and the names of the plaintiff and defendant are 
  stated in the margin, thus "A B against C D." 2 Chit. Pl. 641. 
       8.-2. The commencement is that part of the replication which 
  immediately follows the statement of the title of the court and term, and 
  the names of the parties. It varies in form when it replies to matter of 
  estoppel from what it does when it denies, or confesses and avoids the plea; 
  in the latter case it commences with an allegation technically termed the 
  preclude non. (q.v.) It generally commences with the words, "And the said 
  plaintiff saith that the said defendant," &c. 1 Chit. Pl. 573. 
       9.-3. The body of the replication ought to contain either. 1. Matter of 
  estoppel. 2. Denial of the plea. 3. A confession and avoidance of it; or, 4. 
  In case of an evasive plea, a new assignment. 1st. When the matter of 
  estoppel does not appear from the anterior pleading, the replication should 
  set it forth; as, if the matter has been tried upon a particular issue in 
  trespass, and found by the jury, such finding may be replied as an estoppel. 
  3 East, R. 346; vide 4 Mass. R. 443. 2d. The second kind of replication is 
  that which denies or traverses the truth of the plea, either in part or in 
  whole. Vide Traverse, and 1 Chit. Pl. 576, note a. 3d. The third kind of 
  replication admits, either in words or in effect, the fact alleged in the 
  plea, and avoids the effect of it by stating new matter. If, for example, 
  infancy be pleaded, the plaintiff may reply that the goods were necessaries, 
  or that the defendant, after he came of full age, ratified and confirmed the 
  promise. Vide Confession and Avoidance. 4th. When the plea is such as merely 
  to evade the allegation in the declaration, the plaintiff in his replication 
  may reassign it. Vide New Assignment, and 1 Chit. Pl. 601. 
      10.-4. With regard to the conclusion, it is a general rule, that when 
  the replication denies the whole of the defendant's plea, containing matter 
  of fact, it should conclude to the country. There are other conclusions in 
  particular cases, which the reader will find fully stated in 1 Chit. Pl. 
  615, et seq.; Com. Dig. Pleader, F 5 vide 1 Saund. 103, n.; 2 Caines' R. 60 
  2 John. R. 428; 1 John. R. 516; Arch. Civ. Pl. 258; 19 Vin. Ab 29; Bac. Ab. 
  Trespass, I 4; Doct. Pl. 428; Beames' Pl. in Eq. 247, 325, 326. 
      11.-Sec. 3. The qualities of a replication are, 1. That it must answer 
  so much of the defendant's plea as it professes to answer, and that if it be 
  bad in part, it is bad for the whole. Com. Dig. Pleader, F 4, W 2; 1 Saund. 
  338; 7 Cranch's Rep. 156. 2. It must not depart from the allegations in the 
  declaration in any material matter. Vide Departure, and 2 Saund. 84 a, note 
  1; Co. Lit. 304 a. See also 3 John. Rep. 367; 10 John. R. 259; 14 John., R. 
  132; 2 Caines' R. 320. 3. It must be certain. Vide Certainty. 4. It must be 
  single. Vide U. S. Dig. Pleading, XI.; Bouv. Inst. Index, h.t.; Duplicity; 
  Pleadings. 
  
  

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