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substitution


5 dicționare găsite pentru substitution
Din dicționarul The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Substitution \Sub`sti*tu"tion\, n. [L. substitutio: cf. F.
     substitution.]
     1. The act of substituting or putting one person or thing in
        the place of another; as, the substitution of an agent,
        attorney, or representative to act for one in his absense;
        the substitution of bank notes for gold and silver as a
        circulating medium.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. The state of being substituted for another.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     3. The office or authority of one acting for another;
        delegated authority. [R.] --Shak.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     4. (Civil Law) The designation of a person in a will to take
        a devise or legacy, either on failure of a former devisee
        or legatee by incapacity or unwillingness to accept, or
        after him. --Burrill.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     5. (Theol.) The doctrine that Christ suffered vicariously,
        being substituted for the sinner, and that his sufferings
        were expiatory.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     6. (Chem.) The act or process of substituting an atom or
        radical for another atom or radical; metathesis; also, the
        state of being so substituted. See Metathesis.
        [1913 Webster]

Din dicționarul WordNet (r) 2.0 :

  substitution
       n 1: an event in which one thing is substituted for another; "the
            replacement of lost blood by a transfusion of donor
            blood" [syn: permutation, transposition, replacement,
             switch]
       2: the act of putting one thing or person in the place of
          another: "he sent Smith in for Jones but the substitution
          came too late to help" [syn: exchange, commutation]

Din dicționarul Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0 :

  118 Moby Thesaurus words for "substitution":
     agent, alienation, alternate, alternative, amends, analogy,
     atonement, autism, autistic thinking, avoidance mechanism, backup,
     balancing, blame-shifting, change, changeling, changing,
     commutation, comparison, compensation, copy, counteraction,
     counterbalancing, counterfeit, decompensation, defense mechanism,
     deputy, dereism, dereistic thinking, displacement, dissociation,
     double, dummy, emotional insulation, equal, equivalent, ersatz,
     escape, escape into fantasy, escape mechanism, escapism, exchange,
     expiation, fake, fantasizing, fantasy, fill-in, flight, ghost,
     ghostwriter, imitation, indemnification, indemnity, interchange,
     interchanging, isolation, lex talionis, locum tenens, makeshift,
     metaphor, metonymy, negativism, next best thing, offsetting,
     overcompensation, personnel, phony, pinch hitter, projection,
     proxy, psychotaxis, rationalization, recompense, rectification,
     redress, relief, reparation, repayment, replacement, replacing,
     representative, reserves, resistance, restitution, retaliation,
     revenge, ringer, satisfaction, second string, secondary, sign,
     sociological adjustive reactions, spares, stand-in, sub,
     sublimation, substituent, substitute, succedaneum, superseder,
     supplanter, supplanting, surrogate, swap, swapping, switch,
     switching, symbol, synecdoche, third string, token, understudy,
     utility player, vicar, vice-president, vice-regent,
     wish-fulfillment fantasy, wishful thinking, withdrawal  
     
Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  SUBSTITUTION, civil law. In the law of devises, it is the putting of one 
  person in the place of another, so that he may, in default of ability in the 
  former, or after him, have the benefit of a devise or legacy. 
       2. It is a species of subrogation made in two different ways; the first 
  is direct substitution, and the latter a trust or fidei commissary 
  substitution. The first or direct substitution, is merely the institution of 
  a second legatee, in case the first should be either incapable or unwilling 
  to accept the legacy; for example, if a testator should give to Peter his 
  estate, but in case he cannot legally receive it, or he willfully refuses 
  it, then I give it to Paul; this is a direct substitution. Fidei commissary 
  substitution is that which takes place when the person substituted is not to 
  receive the legacy until after the first legatee, and consequently must 
  receive the thing bequeathed from the hands of the latter for example, I 
  institute Peter my heir, and I request that at his death he shall deliver my 
  succession to Paul. Merl. Repert. h.t.; 5 Toull. 14. 
  
  

Din dicționarul Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  SUBSTITUTION, chancery practice. This takes place in a case where a creditor 
  has a lien on two different parcels of land, and another creditor has a 
  subsequent lien on one only of the parcels, and the prior creditor elects to 
  have his whole demand out of the parcel of land on which the subsequent 
  creditor takes his lien; the latter is entitled, by way of substitution, to 
  have the prior lien assigned to him for his benefit. 1 Johns. Ch. R. 409; 2 
  Hawk's Rep. 623; 2 Mason, R. 342. And in a case where a bond creditor exacts 
  the whole of the debt from one of the sureties, that surety is entitled to 
  be substituted in his place, and to a cession of his rights and securities, 
  as if be were a purchaser, either against the principal or his co-sureties. 
  Id. 413; 1 Paige's R. 185; 7 John. Ch. Rep. 211; 10 Watts, R. 148. 
       2. A surety on paying the debt is entitled to stand in the place of the 
  creditor and to be subrogated to all his rights against the principal. 2 
  Johns. Ch. R. 454. 4 Johns. Ch. R. 123; 1 Edw. R. 164; 7 John. R. 584; 3 
  Paige's R. 117; 2 Call, R. 125; 2 Yerg. R. 346; 1 Gill & John. 346; 6 Rand. 
  R. 98,; 8 Watts, R. 384. In Pennsylvania it is provided by act of assembly, 
  that in all cases where a constable shall be entrusted with the execution of 
  any process for the collection of money, and by neglect of duty shall fail 
  to collect the same, by means whereof the bail or security of such constable 
  shall be compelled to pay the amount of any judgment shall vest in the 
  person paying, as aforesaid, the equitable interest in such judgment, and 
  the amount due upon any such judgment may be collected in the name of the 
  plaintiff for the use of such person. Pamphlet Laws, 1828-29, p. 370. Vide 2 
  Binn. R. 382, and Subrogation. 
  
  

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